The theater is a scene prepared for the exhibition of the players in front of the audience. It is a different way of expressing emotions and events with gestures and conversations. It is also used in the sense of the work generally represented.
Theater is a stage art. The theater artifact shows events through formation. It can also be described as a show art based on speech and action. Theater is widely used; Shakespeare is also spoken of as the art of humans, humans, humans, and humans.
The most important difference of the theater work from other types is; While other literary works are written for reading and listening, the theatrical play is played on the stage in front of the audience. Takes the value measures from the viewer’s conception and understanding. The fact that it has a visible character appeals to society’spsychology as it comes alive. The place of representation and the work are literary elements of the theater. In addition to this literary element, the concept of theater includes acting, stage arrangement, lighting, decor, costume, music, and so on.
The person who writes “game” texts to the theater texts (author) and the person who plays the game on the stage are called “actors” (or more generally actors). The work also involved in the staged stage manager, costumes and stage manager, lighting designer, there are also other ancillaries such as prompter.
The theater comes from the Greek word theatron. Because, in the present sense, the history of contemporary theater relies on religious ceremonies held in the name of the gracious god Dionysos.
The first theater festival was held in Athens in 534 BC In antiquity the theater was a peculiar activity of the upper class. Every year, it is decided which of the elders of Dionysos will honor Dionysos and this person will organize the events. For this reason he was directly concerned with the social reputation. There was a contest in the name of God and the best game was to increase the reputation of the person who prepared it. The antique theater, which can be described as popular due to the nature of the festival, was exhibited in the stages which are usually named as amphitheater, with examples of day-to-day examples. The dimensions of these amphitheaters, which are examples in Turkey in good condition, show the importance of the period theater for the people. It is also necessary to say that the first theater works and the Greek mythology are hand in hand. For this reason, these two areas should be evaluated together.
During this period, there was no decoration or costume in the games. The scene was completely empty, and the main roles were played by the important people. There was also a “chorus” that served as a narrator. There was no current sense of acting and the emotions expressed in the hands of the players indicated the masks they had put in their faces as they got there. The laughing and crying masks that have become the symbols of the theater today are an extension of this practice. Indeed, there were only two types of plays at Greek theater: tragedy and comedy.
The content of the Tragedies was mostly on the conflicts of the gods with the people. As a symbolic statement of religious beliefs, direct interaction between gods and people was normal during games. This mythical order has been a characteristic that influenced literary works throughout history. It can be said that the comedies mostly have political ridicule. The language used is mostly argodur.
In addition, this period theater is based on Aristotle’s “triple unity” principle: event, space and time unity. According to Aristotle, there must be a single story that is followed from beginning to end. Intermediate stories should or should not be present. A game should be played in one place, not in different places and geographies. The scene should represent a single place. The event mesh should not cover too much of a day.
Especially in this period when William Shakespeare was in the forefront, the theater has lost its religious character and attracts attention as a popular type of entertainment. Although there are traces from ancient Greece, the theater approaches have changed due to the direct relationship with the people. Categories of “historical” games have been added to comedy and tragedy genres. Aristotle’s “three unity” rule was abandoned. Theater has also become a “professional” event. It is known that Shakespeare is a theater group that receives financial support from the queen and revolves around the snow. Although the concept of acting has changed in this period, there are no female players yet. The female roles are played by young male players. Shakespeare has made it particularly funny and ironic by writing gender-changing roles in clothes.
One of the most prominent figures who struck the mark of modern theater was perhaps Constantin Stanislavski. Developing the theory of acting known as “magic if” towards the end of the 19th century, Stanislavski gave a particularly realistic flow direction. In theory, it is expected that the players will place themselves in the places of the characters they animate and give them the feelings of the locals in this way.
Theater works are gathered in two groups as tragedy without music, comedy, drama and music (opera, operet, musical, pantomime ballet, revue, sketch, tuluat). The most live among the literary genres and the closest to life is theater.
Tragedy is the oldest kind of theater that gives the purpose to teach with the suggestions of fear, excitement and pity. It is easily separated from the other theater varieties because it is written poetically and connected to constant rules. The Greek god has existed with plays staged at competitions held at Dionysos’ festivities.
Classical tragedies are usually five-act play. These works which started in ancient Greece would be 3 or 6 acts. There were no theaters at that time, but there was a choir on the corner of the stage telling the cause and effect of the events.
Again in classical tragedies, heroes, king, queen, princess, gods and semi-gods of Ancient Greece were chosen from the top layer. The middle layer and simple people were not encountered. Events between the heroes confused people with their spiritual weaknesses, their passions, and their subordinate attitudes. In particular, the characters have to go through a “katharsis”, the purification process. This could only be because the hero made a big mistake with or without awareness, suffering for this reason and finding the right essence purified after this process.
Classical tragedy is theorized by Aristotle. According to this constitution, “triple rule” which means unity in the event, time and environment has been adopted. There are no intricate mixed events. Only one event is shown without entering detail. The front and end parties, causes and consequences of the event are publicly announced to the public as needed. This is called “event association”. It is called “time unity” because the tragedy event is shown as if it is done in a day (24 hours), “environment unity” even though the event started at a certain corner of a single city.
The Trajedians used a high and noble style that resembles bright discourse. There are no rude, ugly and low-quality words. The tragedy poets have emphasized that their deeds are deeply manic and full of wisdom
In Tragedians, the values, ethics, customs and traditions are given a superior value. It is accepted that Trajedin’s purpose is to “awaken fear and compassion in the souls of the spectators by expressing human sufferings”. Some examples of classical tragedies include the Chin-Promised Prometheus, which Aikhylos tells the story of Titan Prometheus, King Oedipus of Sophocles, and Andromakhe of Euripides.
These theorized theories of Greek and Roman tragedies later changed in the modern theater. Some playwrights have created different genres, especially by playing with these rules. Examples include Bertolt Brecht and Epic Theater.
It is the kind of theater that brings together the tragedy and the comedy. The modern theater was born from the desire to represent life on many occasions, without constantly finding the survival of the aristocratic zither or merely putting the ridiculous sides of life on the scene.
The drama, as written in prose and poetry, can range from three to five. He totally rejects the rule of three. It treats socialist and national issues rather than humanitarian themes. The topics can also be varied. It does not hesitate to show the most bloody and ugly or realistic events.
Fate, hope, joy, suspicion, disgrace, disaster and funny behavior can all be found in the drama that can be taken from almost every event that has history and is sad or ludicrous, ugly or beautiful. Heroes can be chosen from every class (regardless of folk – noble distinction). All kinds of characters are given. The drama works are intended to show the truth.
The drama is called “melodrama”, which is a dramatic and dignified figure “play”, an emotional and more exciting one. Melodrama is a musical game, only music has been thrown out today. However, the “feeri“, which is one of the drama genres, is a scene of a fairy tale. Heroes are fantasy beings like gin, fairy, giant. The place and time of the event is not obvious.
The aim in a comedy based on the display of life and the ridiculous aspects of people is to make the viewer think while laughing.
As a result of laughing, there is a degree of freedom in style. All kinds of rough words and jokes are given.
Actions such as fighting and bruising are performed on stage.
Dialogue and chorus are followed by five consecutive comedies without interruption.
Three units (one event, one day, one space) are written according to the rule.
It is organized as a verse.
Aristophanes and Mennadros are the leading poets in the ancient Greek comedy genre. In Latin literature, Plautus wrote comic works. Moliere has produced very successful products of this kind. He’s a French player. According to comedy content, three groups are separated:
Comedy of Taste
Comedy: It is a game in which criticizing the incomplete, incomplete aspects of society, inconsistencies and mistakes in customs and traditions.
Intrigue Comedy: It is a kind of comedy based on surprise and deceit. These comedies, where curiosity is on the front, deal with the ridiculousness of people trying to deceive each other.
Character Comedy: Handles the ridiculousness of human characters. They are games where the characters are treated as heroes. A character’s character of a hero is exaggerated. Greed, stinginess, jealousy, emotional features and their ridiculous situations are explained.
Moliere’s “Sting“, Shakespeare’s “Venetian Merchant” games are character comedies.
The opera is that people put on the stage by singing the play instead of talking. The main characteristic of the opera separating from the theater is the presence of a music section.
It is a type of non-verbal game that aims to reflect thoughts and feelings with music or with some kind of materials sometimes with dancing and sometimes body and face movements. Facial mimics, hand, arm and body movements are used to describe the theme. Pantomime is a universal theater language.
It is one of the kinds of theater. The artists depend on the work they are playing; But improvise by saying the words in the game as they are. There is no obligation to comply with written texts. It is also called the curtain middle game
The parts of music that are without music are theater works which are more than musicals. It is written to appeal to the public. Color, light, clothes and dance are most strikingly used in operetta.
It is an emotional and amusing stage show or game, in which music, dance and dialogue are integrated into the events, which is a peculiar, simple event pattern.
They are musicals, games where the dance is more prominent, more lyrical and dramatic. Aesthetics are more important than others.
It is a kind of theatrical criticism. It is a form of demonstration consisting of melodious, monologue, sketch, dance and mutual witty speech, which is not an integral part of the subject, loosely tied to each other, meaningful in its own right.
Literature What does literature mean? Literature or writing; It is the art of expressing the events, thoughts, emotions and dreams in aesthetic way through language. A more restrictive definition is that of literature; ..