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State (Polity)

  • What does State (Polity) mean?
  • The state (Polity) (Arabic: دولة) is a legal entity formed by a nation or a group of nations organized politically, depending on the territorial integrity.
  • The shadow of the state falls on all human activities: social welfare, internal order, public health, it gains legitimacy. It sets rules, rules, authorizes, forbids …

 

  • The basic question is, what should be left to state control and what should be left to individual? There is no objective answer to this question. Subjectively, “Only subjects that concern the individual should be left to the individual, matters that affect more than one person.” Interpretation is dominant.
  • Thomas Hobbes likened the state to the Leviathan monster. Max Weber said that the state is the legitimate means of using violence.

 

  • State (Polity) Description
  • Throughout history, many state definitions have been made. Philosophical solutions have been made about the emergence, function and future of the state. The agricultural revolution comes first among the factors leading to the formation of the state institution. In particular, it can be said that agricultural communities in Asia are the first to form a state on the community. From philosophers who have expressed ideas in the field of state philosophy, it has been argued that in Plato the state is “born of necessity to live together“, “a natural formation” in Aristotle, language in Ancillon, communication and sociality, , Rousseau, Hobbes, and Locke, the ultimate instrument of pure human purpose in Fichte, absolute in Schelling, moral tinge as a private will in Hegel, is the end of the law in Cicero. Today, many political scientists and philosophers have different definitions. From a legal point of view, the state is generally defined by its elements. According to this, state; “It is the organization of human communities living on a certain land called the country under a political power in a sense of sovereignty and law.” The elements in this definition are:

 

  • Human element: It can also be called as an element of people or nation. It is a group of people who live together in a particular area and show a will to live in common with various ties. A lower bound on the number of people who will form a state can be considered as a reasonable lower limit to the quality of the state. According to the modern approach, in order to establish the element of the nation, the spiritual qualities are sufficient and in this sense the birth of the will to live together is sufficient.

 

  • Elements of sovereignty: This element, also called political power element, is the main constituent element of the state. It is the organizing of the community of people living on a particular piece of the earth in the frame of superior will. The concept of sovereignty, unlike the author, means being independent of the country (international field) while expressing itself as the sole legitimate source of power within the country.

 

  • Country element: Country refers to a piece of land whose territory can be defined and which constitutes an integral part of the geographical sense. However, it is possible to find a debate about the borders of the state. However, state borders must have foreseeable land. The state of the country is divided into land, sea and air.

 

  • Differences between state and government
  • The state is broader than the government. The government is part of the state.
  • The state is continuous and continuous. The government is temporary, short-lived.
  • The government is the means by which the state authority operates. The government is only in charge of the state’s brain.
  • The state is a non-personal authority. Officers are hired according to bureaucratic procedures, and officials are selected to be insensitive to the ideological demands of the government.
  • The state tries to represent common good and general will. But the government represents certain ideologies.

 

  • State forms (Polity forms)
  • Uniterate States
  • It is a state in which the political authority is gathered in one center and the central authority is provided by a single constitution. The laws of the legislature apply in the whole country. (Eg Denmark, France, England, Israel, Italy, Ireland, Norway, Greece, Turkey)

 

  • Mixed (Compound) States
  • They are the states that are the result of the unification by an agreement that is made by more than one state among themselves. It can be in two ways.
  • Confederation: A form of mixed state formed by the independence of the states, which gives them the right to leave when they wish. (Nowadays there is no example, formerly Switzerland, Germany and USA)
  • Federation: A state formed by the states that unite under a common constitution. In such states, each federation also has its own constitution, executive and judicial bodies. (Eg Germany, USA, Canada, Austria, Switzerland, Australia, Russia)

 

  • States according to the source of your sovereignty
  • Monarchic State
  • The form of state in which your sovereignty belongs to one person and his family

 

  • Oligarchic State
  • The state that your sovereignty belongs to a particular class or group.

 

  • Theocratic State
  • The form of state on which the origin of the sovereignty rests. The promise of your religious people is passed. Everything is decided by the clergy.

 

  • Democratic State
  • The form of state in which the sovereign belongs to the people.

 

  • There is no need for any unit to be recognized by other states in order to qualify as a state. Recognition is only necessary for establishing relationships with the international community.

 

  • In the sense we understand today, the state (Modern State) emerged in the 16th century.

 

  • All societies are not characterized by the existence of a state. There are no state institutions in hunter and gatherer cultures and small farming societies. The birth of the State shows a distinct transition in the history of mankind, because the centralization of political power in the formation of the state reveals new dynamics in the processes of social change.

 

  • The state is a political unity. First of all, for this, we need a cultural union among the individuals who set up the state. However, cultural unity is not enough for the life of the state. Many civil wars in history show that cultural unity is not enough to establish a state. It is important to show how necessary the American civil war is to establish a constitutional order and to understand the relation of law state rather than war culture.

 

  • Competitive State Theory
  • The Pluralist State
  • Born from liberal philosophy. Accordingly, the individual is the front plan, the state is the second plan. The main task of the state is to pursue an ‘arbitration, expertise’ in the society. If the state is impartial and impartial, then it is working to provide common good.

 

  • Where there is no state, individuals can abuse each other. John Locke states this situation as “where there is no law, there is no freedom.” Explaining. Yet the state can also exploit individuals. As a precaution, the constitutional order arises. Thomas Hobbs said that chaos would emerge if there was no state and that citizens should make a choice between absolutism and chaos.

 

  • In terms of society, the pluralist state is a widespread and equal distribution of power in liberal democracies. From a government perspective, it is clear that all social groups are influenced by politics. The state does not hold anyone’s side; There is no self-interest.

 

  • The capitalist state
  • It has emerged from a Marxist point of view. According to this, the society should be analyzed together with its economic structure. The state is born of the class system and is based on the class system; The superstructure conditioned by the infrastructure that is the true bearer of social life.

 

  • From the Neo-Marxists, Antonio Gramci brought the concept of ‘hegemony‘ to Marx’s minds. The state was an important vehicle in the hegemony of Burjugan. This hegemony was not only about the economy, but about accepting ideas and beliefs.

 

  • Leviathan State
  • The Leviathan state is like a monster that self-serves and develops itself. This approach belongs to new right wing and neo-liberals. For them, the state restricts the individual and threatens economic freedom; It is a ‘nanny’ that interferes with everything, as opposed to the referee state prediction of the plurals. At the center of this approach lies the idea that the state has interests separate from society. New right-wing thinkers say that the causes of states’ interventionist tendencies in the 20th century are their own goals and internal dynamics, not solving class struggles and stabilizing capitalism by bringing equilibrium.

 

  • Patriarchal (Patriarchal) State
  • It has emerged from a feminist point of view. But feminism does not have a systematic theory of the state.

 

  • Liberal feminists have adopted a pluralist state view. So they say that reforms can solve the equality of the social sex. At a time when women do not have the right to vote, they accept that the state is patriarchal, but still can solve this inequality. State interventionism can be used as a means of solving this inequality.

 

  • Radical feminists approach the state negatively. They think that state power reflects a patriarchal oppression. There are also some points of view between Marxists and radical feminists. Both groups reject the idea that the state has its own interests. But while Marxists explain the state in the economic context, feminists openly express gender inequality, which is the cause of patriarchal family structure. For feminists the state is governed ‘by men, men‘.

 

  • As the woman is reduced to ‘housewife, mother‘ position, the patriarchal structure of the state continues to continue. As long as the state limits women to the public sphere, women will still be more dependent on the state as long as this action is confined to the professions of the ‘care professions‘ group. Thus, women will become the labor labor force.

 

State (Polity)
Author: wik Date: 7:14 pm

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