Sociology

  • What does sociology mean?
  • Sociology is a scientific discipline that works on science, society and human interaction. Social (sociological) research has spanned a wide area from the relations among different individuals encountered in the street to the global social processes. This discipline also focuses on how people live and how they live, whether they are members of the union, the group or the institution.

 

  • A person working in the field of social science is also called a sociologist. As an academic discipline, society is regarded as a science of social science and is relatively young compared to other branches of science developed in the first quarter of the 19th century. Many sociologists work in one or more specializations or sub-branches.

 

  • The sociology word consists of the “logy” element, which means “science” in Greek, and the “socio” root in Latin, which refers to the person in general terms, member, friend or friend, from the word “socius“.

 

  • Because society is a broadly disciplined discipline of science, it is difficult to make a definition even for professional society scientists. One of the ways to describe this discipline is to define this discipline as a set of subdivisions of different dimensions of society. For example, it examines the social structures of race and gender as much as the inequality of social classification and class structure, the changes in the quantity and type of demographic population, the crime of criminal behavior and distortions, the politics of society, the state and laws of politics, the race society and the gender. New social sub-sciences such as network analysis continue to emerge to include many cross-disciplines in the present.

 

  • Many sociologists are doing useful research outside the academy. Findings help educators, lawmakers, managers, those who want to innovate, leaders of the business world, and those interested in solving social problems and creating social policies.

 

 

  • In the first half of the nineteenth century, social science began to appear as an academic reaction to the claims of modernity: the world began to shrink and begin to integrate, and people’s experiences on the earth quickly spread and spread. Society scientists hope not only to learn what keeps social groups together, but also to develop a solution to social disintegration.

 

  • The sociology word was created in August 1838 by Auguste Comte, which brought together the Latin socius (friend) and the Greek logos (science).

 

  • Comte wanted to integrate all the sciences of human beings, including history, psychology and economics. His social scheme was precisely nineteenth century; He believed that all humanity had passed from the same historical stages (theology, metaphysics, positive sciences), and if one were to understand this development, he could find remedies for social ills. Society science had to be the ‘queen of sciences’.

 

  • The first published book on sociology was the The Study of Sociology (1874), written by British thinker Herbert Spencer.

 

  • Lester Frank Ward, who was described by some as the father of American society science in the United States, published the Dynamic Society Science book in 1883 and was the first to write a lecture titled Society Science Items in Kansas University, Lawrence in 1890, Science department, this discipline began to be taught in its own name.

 

  • The Department of History and Sociology at Kansas University was founded in 1891 and was first founded by Albion W. Small, the first literally independent science department of society, who published the American Journal of Sociology in 1895 at the University of Chicago in 1892.

 

  • The first European social science department was founded in 1895 by Bordeaux University by Émile Durkheim, founder of L’Année Sociologique (1896).

 

  • The first community science department in the UK was founded in 1904 at the London School of Economics and Political Science (which also published the British Journal of Social Science).

 

  • In 1919, Max Weber in Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich in Germany and Florian Znaniecki in Poland in 1920 created social science departments.

 

  • International collaboration in the field of sociology began in 1893 with the much wider participating International Society Science Association (ISA), founded by René Worms but formed in 1949, and the star-studded small International Institute of Sociology.

 

  • In 1905, the American Society of Science, the world’s largest professional sociologist association, was founded

 

  • Other “classical” social science theoreticians from the 19th century to the early 20th century are:
  • Karl Marx,
  • Ferdinand Tönnies,
  • Émile Durkheim,
  • Vilfredo Pareto,
  • And Max Weber.

 

  • Other “classical” social science theoreticians from the 20th century to the early 21st century are:
  • Markus Dressler,
  • These scientists like Comte do not just consider themselves “sociologists”. The studies are directed to the subjects of religion, education, economics, law, psychology, ethics, philosophy and theology, and their theories are adapted to different academic disciplines. Most of all, society has been influential on science (while excluding Marx, which is also a central name on the economy), and their theories are still considered as the most feasible theories today.
  • Within the discipline, the philosophical roots of understanding differed from the scientific explanation. The first theorists of Comte developed the social science approach as a natural science by applying the same methodology and methodology used in natural sciences to understand society. Emphasis on experientialism and scientific methodology has sought to establish an indisputable basis for social scientific claims and discoveries and to differentiate social science from less experimental disciplines such as philosophy.
  • This method, called positivism, has transformed into a source of contention between social scientists and other scientists, and eventually to a point of disintegration within discipline itself. Thus, as science enters the probabilistic models of necessity, the Newtonian model of accepting and internalizing uncertainty, sociology has become the dominion of believers and those who oppose the possibility of any explanation and prediction, as the need to approach the needy (which loads the diversions into structure, interaction or other strengths).

 

  • A second view that is different from the scientific explanation is cultural and even social in itself. From the beginning of the 19th century, positivist and naturalist approaches to social life were questioned by scientists such as Wilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert, who discussed the separation of the social world from the natural world due to the fact that human society has unique aspects such as meanings, symbols, rules, norms and values.
  • These items of society were both the result of human cultures and they were produced by them. This view was later developed by Max Weber, the founder of antipositivism (humanistic society science). According to this approach closely related to anti-naturalism, social research should concentrate on the cultural values ​​of man.
  • This led to some debate about how a person could make a distinction between subjective and objective research and influenced hermeneutical studies. Similar debates have led to variations such as public sociology, particularly in the age of the internet, which emphasizes the benefit of society-specific scientific expertise in the community.

 

  • Characteristics of sociology
  • He deals with social problems, not individual problems
  • Sociology does not make universal rules and definitions
  • Sociology examines what it is not necessary to know
  • Sociology moves in solidarity with other branches of science
  • Sociological knowledge reaches generalities by establishing a causal relationship between events
  • Sociology is systematic and regularly informed
  • Sociology is a positive science
  • Sociology can not examine sociological societies in terms of general rules and definitions.

 

  • Social theory
  • Instead of explaining the patterns of social life, social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and solve social patterns and major social constructs.

 

  • Social theory has always established a problematic relationship with classical academic disciplines; Most of the key thinkers have no college chair. Although social theory is sometimes thought to be a branch of social science, it is interdisciplinary because it is related to anthropology, economics, theology, history, philosophy, and so on.
  • The first social theories were developed simultaneously with the birth of social science. Auguste Comte – social evolutionism – known as the ‘father of sociology’ – has undertaken the basic work of one of the earliest social theories.
  • In the 19th century, three major classical theories of social and historical change were established: the theory of social evolutionism (part of social Darwinism) social theoretic theory and Marxist theory of historical materialism.

 

  • Modern social theories are further refined adaptations of classical theories, such as evolutionary theories (neo-evolutionism, sociobiology, modernization theory, post-industrial society theory) or the general theory of historical sociology and subjectivity and creation of society.
  • Contrary to the disciplines of natural sciences-such as physics or chemistry-social theorists may not be loyal enough to advocate scientific theories to defend their own theories.
  • Instead, they deal with large-scale social tendencies and structures, using hypotheses that can not be easily proved, except historical and psychological interpretations, which form the basis of critiques of social theorists.

 

  • Critical theorists in the extreme, such as deconstructivists or postmodernists, claim that any systematic research or method deviates from the beginning.
  • Many times, however, the “social theory” is defined without reference because the social reality described is so oppressive that it can not be easily proven the opposite. Social theories of modernity or anarchy can be two examples in this sense.
  • Social theories, however, constitute a large part of society’s science. Objective scientific-based research can provide support for explanations made by social theorists.

 

  • For example, a scientific method-based statistical study suggesting that there is a significant income disparity between men and women doing the same job may complement feminism or patriarchy’s suggestions as complex social theories.
  • In general and especially among pure socialist advocates, social theory has an attraction because the focus center moves away from the individual and returns directly to the collective forces and social forces that control our lives.
  • This sociological understanding (or social image) has been attractive to students over the years and others have not been satisfied with the status quo because it is based on the assumption that social structures and patterns are either randomly or arbitrarily controlled by special powerful groups, demonstrating the possibility of change.

 

  • Science and mathematics
  • Society scientists work by examining society and social behavior, groups and social institutions formed by people as various social, religious, political and business organizations. They also examine group behaviors and social interactions, follow their origins and development, and analyze group influences on member individuals.
  • The characteristics of social scientists, social groups, organizations and institutions; The ways in which each of the individuals is affected by the other and the group to which they belong, and the impact of social characteristics such as sex, age or race in a person’s daily life.
  • Community scientific research helps educators, legislators, administrators and those who want to solve social problems and improve public policy. Many sociologists work in one or more specializations: social organization, social stratification, social mobility; Racial and ethnic relations, education, family; Social psychology, urban, rural, policy, and comparative society science; Gender roles and relationships; demography; senile; Criminology; And social practices.
  • Although society science has grown up in a big way in the belief that Comte is going to include all other fields of science in society, science of society has not replaced science at the end.

 

  • Instead, society has come to the point of being identified with other social sciences. Nowadays, mostly using a comparative method, it examines the organization of human subjects, social institutions and their social interactions.
  • Discipline is particularly focused on complex industrial societies. Community scientists have recently pointed out the “Western Accent” in this area, with clues from anthropologists. In response, many community science departments on the earth support multicultural and multinational studies.

 

  • Today, sociologists, institutions that organize society such as race or ethnicity, social class, sexual roles and family; Such as the social functioning of separation and deterioration of such structures as crime and divorce, and micro-operations such as interpersonal interactions and the socialization of individuals.
  • Social scientists often rely on the quantitative method of social research to develop models to explain patterns in social relations and to help determine social change.
  • Certain branches of sociology think that it provides a better understanding of social processes – such as focused interviews, group discussions, and ethnographic methods.

 

  • Some sociologists who want to find the middle way are discussing the complementary use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The results from one approach can close the exploits on the other side.
  • For example, when quantitative methods define large and wide patterns, qualitative approaches can help people understand how they understand these patterns.

 

  • Social Research Methods
  • There are many main methods used by community scientists to gather non-theoretical findings, including research questionnaires, interviews, interviews, participant observation, statistical research, evaluation research, and document-based assessments such as testing, questionnaires, and so on.

 

  • The problem with all of these approaches is that they are based on the theoretical position that the researcher tries to adapt how he solves and understands the society he sees in their eyes.
  • If it is a functionalist like Émile Durkheim, the researcher is likely to explain everything in terms of large-scale social structures. A symbolic actor will most likely concentrate on how people understand each other.

 

  • A Marxist or neo-Marxist researcher will probably have everything through the class struggle and the economy. Phenomenalists tend to think that there is only one way and nothing else if people are devising their meaning according to their reality.
  • One of the real problems is that many social scientists argue that a single institutional approach is true and that it is theirs. In practice, sociologists often mix and match different approaches and methods because each method produces specific data types.

 

  • The Internet is of interest to social scientists in three respects: for example, as a research tool to use online surveys rather than paper surveys, as a discussion platform and as a research topic.
  • Internet society considers the solution of online communities (eg newsgroups), organizational changes that are disseminated in virtual communities and worlds, new media axes such as the internet, and general social change in the transformation from industrial society to knowledge-based gathering (or information society).

 

  • Other social sciences
  • In the early 20th century, social scientists and psychologists engaged in research on industrial society, contributing to the development of anthropology. Anthropologists have also explored industrial societies.
  • Today, society has differentiated science and anthropology from objects of study better than the different theoretical content and methods.
  • Social biology is a new field that comes from both social science and biology in relative terms. Although this area was accepted very quickly at first, it was reacting because of the search for ways of explaining social behavior and structures through evolutionary and biologically functioning processes.
  • Community scientists are often criticized for having too much groundwork for the effects of genes in defining behavior.
  • However, sociologists often answer by finding that there is a complex relationship between nature and cultivation. In this sense, social biology is closely related to physical anthropology, zoology, evolutionary psychology, human behavioral ecology, and dual inheritance theory.

 

  • However, for most of these workers in the field, the considerations of this field can be accepted in large measure, because finding biological bases for social structures is opposed to the propositions and conclusions of many social theories which state that social structures are rare and voluntary.
  • Community science has some links to social psychology, but the second is related to social behavior, while the second is related to social structures.

 

  • Approaches and methods
  • Auguste Comte (1789-1857): positivist.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858-1917): positivist.
  • Karl Marx: dialectical materialist
  • Giambattista Vico (1668-1774): subject / semantic.
  • Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911): linked to hermeneutic tradition; Sensible
  • Georg Simmel (1858-1918): a complex process.
  • Max Weber: sensible and active.
  • Talcott Parsons: Structural functionalism
  • Other groups: Robert Merton, Gerhard Lenski, Erving Goffman, Herbert Blumer, Harold Garfinkel, Peter Berger, Amitai Etzioni, C. Wright Mills, Daniel Bell, Alvin Toffler, G. Herbert Mead, Alain Touraine.

 

  • Sociological Concepts
  • Social reality
  • Social structure
  • Social relations
  • Social groups
  • Social stratification
  • Social development
  • Social policies
  • Culture
  • Social institutions
  • Social change
  • Social dissolution
  • Sosonic

 

  • Sociology Branches
  • Moral Sociology
  • Family Sociology
  • Military Sociology
  • Body social science
  • Knowledge Sociology
  • Science Sociology
  • Working Sociology
  • Environmental Sociology
  • Sociology of Religion
  • Educational Sociology
  • Industrial Sociology
  • Folk Sociology
  • Migration Sociology
  • Gender Sociology
  • Sociology of Law
  • Economics Sociology
  • Human Ecology
  • Urban sociology
  • Village Sociology
  • Institutions Sociology
  • Small Communities Sociology
  • Sociology of Culture
  • Medical Sociology
  • Naturalistic Sociology
  • Health Sociology
  • Art Sociology
  • Industrial Sociology
  • Political Sociology
  • Social Psychology
  • History Sociology
  • International Relations Sociology
  • Applied Sociology
Sociology
Author: wik Date: 7:02 pm

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