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Social movement

  • What does social movement mean?
  • Social movement; In social sciences it is seen as a common role playing a role in accelerating, inhibiting or reversing social change through different mobilizing and behavioral strategies, including different forms of regulation. Social movements are, collectively, the collective actions of people who, for the most part, come together for a common purpose.

 

  • Analyzes of social movements can be done by political scientists, sociologists, historians. Charles Tilly, Sidney Tarrow, Donatella della Porta, Alain Touraine and Alberto Melucci are some of the most important academics working on this field.

 

  • Social movement in general sense
  • Social Movements; Organization ratings, size, strategies chosen and similar criteria. Movements normally go through more and more stages;
  • The first conflicts with the problem, problematization (often rejection)
  • To organize provocative, sometimes symbolic, but sometimes concrete movements by working together with groups and associations, including alliances and dissidents.

 

  • There are several or more charismatic pioneers who find alternatives to what exists and try to place daily chal- lenges. As a result, it takes a long time for the social action to take place either because the situation has come to an end, or at least it has been recognized as a serious problem by the society, or because other problems have dominated.
  • The most obvious aspect of a social movement is that dominant forms of open organizational forms are at the very beginning. Generally, people start to form a union (association, foundations, etc.) immediately after the formation of an action. In the later process, these movements in the minds and hearts of the people are disappearing or not effecting more, while the developed structures and forms are formed on them.

 

  • Often it is seen as a death of the movement, and the main purpose is the end, the end. In this context, the necessity of vision and dreams of a social movement is in some cases shown as their causes and constitutive and repulsive force.

 

  • The establishment of new constructions and the change of the ancestor show the difference of a social movement: radicals condemn modesty, careers or betrayals, opposition accusations are utopianism or dictatorship ambition.

 

  • The exchange of established structures is an indication of the abandonment of the singular purpose at the same time. However, with the transition to real politics, deviations from the exit targets inevitably occur; Consequently, concessions become a matter, and consequently, pluralism that meets the essence of an activist movement becomes either unprotected or partially exploited at the institutional level.

 

  • What is worth mentioning here is the Action Plan developed by Bill Mayer (1933-2002) from America. Mayer designed the ideal process of social movements for political purposes. There is also at least a subsequent standardization of analytical approaches to Crane Brinton for the formation and progress of the revolutions.

 

  • There are different approaches to how to understand social movements. From the second half of the nineteenth century, when social movements were first understood as irrational-uncontrolled crowds, there was a growing appreciation of the rational content of movements, especially in the 1960s. 1968 student movements have been decisive in this respect.

 

  • Therefore, movements are understood through a transition from the dimension of collective behavior to the dimension of collective action. The American school, in a functionalist line, deals with how movements emerge. Topics such as mobilization of resources, political process, political opportunity structure fall within the scope of this approach. In Europe, movements are more often handled within the framework of Marxism, class analysis and revolutionary process.

 

  • Historical examples
  • Examples from the 19th and 20th centuries
  • Liberation Movement of Slaves in America, Latin America and England
  • Labor Movement
  • First Wave of Female Movements
  • Fascist Movements in 20th Century Europe

 

  • As New Social Movements, there are some movements especially since the 70’s. Especially;
  • Ecology Movement
  • Anti-Atomic Energy Movement
  • Peace Movement (Pacifism)
  • Women’s Movement
  • Internationalist Movement (Third world movement, fair trade, Anti-imperialism / Anti-
  • Lesbian Movement and Homosexual Movement )
  • Bisexual Movement
  • Anti-globalization movement
  • World Social Forum

 

  • Emancipation (Equality)
  • Equality comes from Latin emancipare: “Mancipium” means that a slave or a young man will gain autonomy through “the blessing with resistance“. 17./18. There has been a change of meaning in the century: a movement of social and political emancipation has been created through the act of obtaining independence. These efforts are aimed at achieving freedom and equality.
  • This is mostly due to discrimination or domination-oriented, ie, opposition to patriarchalism, or reduction of spiritual and economic dependence on the family. Often this concept is used synonymously with “equality of women“.
  • Equality usually means the liberation of groups that are discriminated against because of races, ethnic identities, gender, social classes, and do not accept political decisions (eg Jewish Equality or Catholic Equality).
  • In America, the word empowerment is used for new concepts of political equality.

 

  • Equality in history
  • In ancient Rome, “emancipation” (equality) was a once-in-a-lifetime presentation of rights to itself in the higher, while “emancipatio canonica” (general equality) was mentioned in the Middle Ages. According to this understanding of equality, for example, the children of those accused of devil business were allowed to be taken from the custody of such criminals and placed in the monasteries.

 

  • At the beginning of the New Age, the concept of equality turned to self-use, ie, individual-based use, in a more concrete way: Individuals could no longer be saved from tutelage, but they were also exposed to certain suspicions. In the Enlightenment period, a general social equality was targeted, primarily in the field of law, but it is still not fully ensured that these legal equality demands are met in social and cultural realities.
  • Equality means equalization of minorities or women who are discriminated against, such as women, blacks, workers, farmers or homosexuals.

 

  • Freedom of the others (eg Negroes) and the demand for emancipation are well explained in Karl Marx’s request for equality as “we must free ourselves before we can free others“. In this view, the class problem is emphasized, not the question of nature about the equalization of women in every point of view.
  • Equality is not realized in the right of liberty but it has been consciously recognized for the first time in itself and has become a situation.

 

  • Jewish equality
  • The forerunner of Jewish equality is Prussia, the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn from Dessau. Minorities in Prussia are far from equally sharing social power, but under lesser pressure from minorities elsewhere. Due to his religion, Mendelssohn was not a member of the Prussian-Royal Academy of Sciences. The Prussian Jurist Christian Wilhelm von Dohm was inspired by Mendelssohn in 1781 and received a work entitled “On the Improvement of the Citizenship of the Jews” (Über die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden (1781)).

 

 

 

  • Women’s equality
  • In the new western history equality movements are roughly divided into coins.
  • Women’s first equality effort 12/13. Century. This is also known as the start motion. The characteristic is that it happens in the context of the church and it is not asked. As a result of initial success, this action should ultimately be considered smart.
  • The second equality movement took place after the French Revolution. Equality and freedom, the main idea of ​​the revolution, were first applied to men. But women decided to fight for their rights with the dizzyingness of the revolution. What was new here was that the movement was not church-centered anymore. The English advocates of the women’s rights movement in the early 20th century were recognized as “Suffragette“. The most important aims of the first women’s movement were to obtain rights such as the right to choose, the right to education, the right to private property and the right to work. The end of this movement is the beginning of the Second World War, which took place throughout Europe. The characteristic of this movement is that the traditional role distribution between men and women is, in principle, demanding women’s rights, without being questioned.
  • The second wave of women’s movements began in France in the mid-40s and was facilitated by the Second World War. As the mass movement, Betty Friedans first published the book “The Feminine Mystique” in 1963, and then in the 60’s the students’ confusion movement was declared as the deeds of the women’s movement. Most of the women’s premiere 68 were not given as much by the man. This time the traditional role distribution of women and men and patriarchy were questioned collectively. The list of established women’s rights has been extensively addressed in Feminism.

 

  • Individual equality
  • Pedagogy and at the same time Psychology (Developmental Psychology, Rolf Oerter, Leo Montada, 2003), above all, says that the purpose of each development of the individual is to get rid of the family being guided by the family, parental rules and purposes.
  • If the guidance of an adult child is too much and if this child wants to be justified, it can be seen as a luck that life regeneration, such as life planning, is no longer adjusted and maintained by adults (such as corporate adults, trainers, teachers) (Rolf Oerter, 2003, Rolf Oerter, Eva Dreher, 2003, Günter Krampen, Barbara Reichle, 2003)
  • It is said, “You will never mature” a person who can not exist on his own feet and looks down on the possibilities offered by his family. That person can not be liberated. (Still “depends on the nurse“, “Am Tropf“, Lilian Fried, Susanna Roux, 2006)

 

  • New social movements
  • In the last quarter of the 20th century, social tendencies and groupings are described as new social movements that strive to change the social norms and processes that are invariably seen and the party-institutional system that is established. These movements began after the political 68 movement.

 

  • Formation
  • New social movements began in the late 1960s with the slowing of student movement and non-parliamentary opposition in western Europe and North America. In the developing countries, especially in the mid-1990s, these movements developed with the acceleration of international anti-globalization movements.
  • These movements have sometimes faced resistance because of their critical approach to reaching the changes and their partially chosen methods due to their initiative. Some of the new social movements have remained only minority movements nowadays, or others have been on the agenda for a short time as they have grown from time to time as mass movements.
  • The issues and situations that new social movements, such as the ecological movement or the new women’s movements, are advocating nowadays constitute countless social compromises in every society. With these compromises, these movements come into play and then become permanent.
  • The protests of the 1960s brought about a new political and social consciousness and a new cultural identity together with young cultures and subcultures (eg flower power or hippie movement). Firstly, new movements were made especially by the young people of the middle class. They have sometimes faced accusations of hypocrisy against their traditional, cultural, ethical and social values.
  • Like the student movements of the 1960s, referred to as the ’68s, criticism of analysis and rational systems first appeared in the background in new movements, while the foreground was politically motivated activism with intense emotion. Your individuality and the meaning of the individual are even greater than those of previous social movements.

 

  • Features
  • Political new social movements act as parliamentary opposition in the framework of the rules and try to influence local, national and international politics, culture or economy.
  • In some new social movements, protecting moral values ​​is a common goal. Apart from this common goal, there are limits to the waste of natural resources and the economic growth. These movements are linked to a general anti-capitalist social critique. In terms of political ideology, these movements take place in a wide range of worldviews; It is possible to find right populist and extreme right (minority) stances as well as socialist views from anarchic views, and even German anti-nuclear and anti-nuclear movements.
  • These movements have also led to the emergence of public opposition in their opposition media, which they have established over time, due to their under-representation in the established media.

 

  • Organization Types
  • There have been various types of new social movements. Unofficially, small local and regional communities have, over time, become supra-regional and, at the same time, international institutions and organizations. Especially anti-globalization movements or ecological movements (eg Greenpeace) have experienced this.
  • Non-Governmental(NGO)” concept has become widespread for other movements today considered to be organizations independent from official institutions outside of new social movements.
  • Many groups and organizations have at their disposal a power liberty that is used according to different circumstances in their activities. Some activists show militant attitudes when sabotaging. However, during the events, the ranks became mixed and the source of violence became unclear. From time to time the police, representing the state, have caused people to be injured by using excessive force against the actions of the new social movements.

 

  • Perception in the public eye
  • In the public opinion, new social movements, in spite of ideological diversity, are often seen as products of left politics.
  • During the cold war period until the end of the ’80s, different groups of people who were seen as provocations by many conservative citizens have become polarized. These attitudes are sometimes hostile to individual individuals as physical attacks. To be seen as an enemy, the lengths of his hair, his clothes or other external appearances were sufficient. Often anti-American, eastern Europe’s secret service or similar things are seen as opposed to the movement. The supporters of these movements, at least, were accused of political bias or simply nationalism / simplicity, partly “work revolution” or “work demonstration” and the like.
  • Critics have interpreted new social movements as a tendency to narcissism. For them, the individual “emotional state” is the political entity seen in the frontal and tried to hide them through verbal parallels.

 

  • Alternative forms of life and economy
  • Within the new social movements, new experiences have been gained in the form of alternative living together. Many groups wanted to create a meaningful existence that meant a simpler life in the country. Especially in the United States, state municipalities are established. This province has played a decisive role in the municipalities to establish a life with nature. Thus, a new soul, that is to say, to the cultures of natural religions or to the cultures of every North American Indian, which is full of magic in the development of the thinker and calls out to the senses, played a big role. These have been in the form of political and cultural opposition to the American-American movement in the ’70s. In addition, it contributed to the alienated western appearance of Buddhist and Indian elements. In their search for meaning, part of the new social movements of the ’70s and’ 80s has shifted to the content of mysticism of different trends. This contributed to the polarization of movements.
  • With the establishment of cooperative-oriented agricultural projects, new businesses related to agriculture have been established. Hierarchical structures have not been established in these enterprises and primarily ecologically interested businesses have been established. During the ’70s and’ 80s self-managing organizations were established in other areas of the economy. These organizations are also based on the same principles as others. In the mid-80s an ecology bank was established in Germany and investors in this bank invested their money first and foremost in ecology technology and social needs. These investments have been maintained as a trend against exploitation.

 

  • The municipalities were established not only in the country but also in the cities. Thanks to them, alternative models have been developed for the traditional forms of the social community, independent of traditional small family forms. Thus, significant changes have been made in the tabooing of the sex. Different gender orientations have been experienced more clearly and this has been met with tolerance. At least in the new social movements, similar requests have been considered. Indeed, the new sexual liberation has not been a violent objection as some conservative media have claimed that they could react morally at the time.

 

  • The concept of alternative movement has been seen as synonymous with new social movements. The sought-after and partially found alternatives have been influenced by sociology, psychology, pedagogy, medicine, religion, politics and other social spheres as a form of expression such as the sovereign “conservative citizen” and in much of the “good” society and movement. This effect has been valid in the context of cultural change, including industrial communities in the west.

 

  • Ecology movement and anti-atom movement
  • Apart from the Sub-Movements, a new consciousness of ecology has been formed. After the 70’s, natural living sources due to technological developments thanks to the ecological movement have been exposed to water, soil and air pollution and the eyes of the dam. Following the increase of dangerous technologies like atomic energy, solar energy, wind energy, biogas technology, water power and so on, nature friendly and renewable energies have begun to be demanded. In the 80’s, organizations such as Greenpeace, which acts internationally outside the ecological movement, or Robin Wood NGO, established in Germany, have been established. These nongovernmental organizations have made environmental scandals open despite their sometimes hindered actions by exciting promotional activities.

 

  • Apart from the Sub-Movements, a new state of consciousness has emerged on ecology. After seventies, the natural living sources of technological developments thanks to the ecological movement have been exposed to water, soil and air pollution and the eyes of the dam.
  • Following the increase of dangerous technologies like atomic energy, solar energy, wind energy, biogas technology, water power and so on, nature friendly and renewable energies have begun to be demanded. In the 80’s, organizations such as Greenpeace, which acts internationally outside the ecological movement, or Robin Wood NGO, established in Germany, have been established.

 

  • These nongovernmental organizations have made environmental scandals open despite their sometimes hindered actions by exciting promotional activities.
  • In other areas of the ecological movement, there are pollution and climate protection as well as consumer protection due to the trash. The use of additives in foodstuffs for consumer protection is also discussed.
  • It is desirable to use markings on the content of the foodstuffs. This use was amended during the 1998 and 2005 coalition of the Social Democrats and the Greens in Germany, for example. The ecological movement has made efforts to use biological agriculture.

 

  • The demand for large-scale animal husbandry has come to an end, and instead, animal husbandry has become widespread in line with the natural needs of the species. They have also refused the use of hormonal additives in animal feed.
  • On the other hand, BSE (Crazy calf), where tens of thousands of animals have been killed across Europe, has reached the demands of the 21st century due to scandals and other animal outbreaks.
  • The latter also initiated a movement to protect the animals. In these movements, strict measures have been taken against the use of animals which are in danger of extinction, as animal subjects, and hunting of whales. Other topics discussed since the late 1990s have included prototypes against gene technology with nutrients and gene research played with genes.

 

  • The anti-nuclear movement, which is part of the ecological movement, is not only about the military, but also the consequences of the use of atomic energy in civilizations.
  • Encouragement and support by large populace groups, for example the Three Mile island of the American nuclear power plant, prevents the accident and catastrophic events that occurred in 1979 at Harrisburg, and in particular at the atomic plants of the Ukrainian nuclear plant in 1986, such as a major nuclear accident in Chernobyl.
  • From the 1970s onwards, massive actions against nuclear power plants, recycling facilities or radioactive and toxic materials in Europe and where they were planned to be installed have become increasingly successful.

 

  • There have been major battles between the demonstrators and the state security forces, especially in the discussions in Brockdorf in 1982 and in Wackersdorf in 1986. Up to now, the transfer of used combustible radioactive substances from the French recycling plant La Hague to Gorleben has been hampered by anti-nuclear forces. However, the realization of this transfer is repeated in the presence of the security forces.

 

  • Sebastian Briat, one of the atomic energy opponents of one of the anti-Castor actions on October 7, 2004, lost his life after crossing over the transfer vehicle at Elsass and breaking his leg. Briat died as a result of severe injury.
  • They were railing themselves with three other friends, and unfortunately their group of friends could not stop the train. For this reason Sebastian did not escape the train of Castor known as the high-speed train.
Social movement
Author: wik Date: 10:04 pm
Social sciences and society

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