Science

  • Science; As a phenomenon that nurtures reason, curiosity and purpose, many subdivisions have been divided into daily life, leading people to get better living conditions, to find unknown facts and to learn new things. All science branches choose a section of the universe as their subject, trying to enact legislation based on empirical methods and reality.
  • Science; Is the whole of the work done by the arts to improve the living conditions of the people, fed by art and creativity at every stage. Bertrand Russell defines Einstein as an effort to reconcile sensory data with regular thoughts, and Bertrand Russell as an effort to find laws that connect phenomena of the world with observations and observational reasoning.
  • For centuries, the curiosity of mankind to the environment of life on earth has begun to take on an activity that will raise living standards. The effort to understand the seemingly ordinary events has in fact created the fact that the world is full of mysteries and that it needs to be resolved. While traditional science only needs to understand and solve, the types of science that are divided into advanced stages include not only solving but also progressing beyond the solution. In the past, some of the most important branches of science are mathematics, geometry, sky science and medicine. Since the early days of the development of a wide variety of mathematical analysis systems, new formulas, systems and theories have been developed, which is an example of the continuity of science.
  • Although scientific laws are indispensable elements of science, the truth of many scientific laws is still debatable. Science is very important to the experiment and the scientific method is based on experiments. This phase seats on a specific frame besides making the workpiece more convincing. Only one person on paper can legitimize and act as a basic stone. The change of science in an infinite process is undeniable. The science that divides into lower branches in time has taken on separate subjects in numerical and social fields; But in terms of quality it continues to serve the same purpose.
  • History of science
  • Science in antiquity
  • It is known that science has emerged before the writing. For this reason, archeology has an important role in studying scientific discoveries, views and discoveries, especially in antiquity. For example, after the examination of various archaeological discoveries, it was determined that the first people in prehistoric times made various observations; For example they followed the seasons. Various findings in Africa dating back to 3500 BC and 20000 BC carry traces of a variety of time-measuring techniques.
  • Along with this, however, it was determined that the scientific activities as well as the technological development were intensified and accelerated especially in 2500 BC. Many examples of this, especially in architecture, can be seen today; Large structures such as Stonehenge are monuments that can not be made without specific scientific and technological development, especially with various advanced mathematical knowledge. For example, most structures in this period are constructions that can not be done without at least Pythagorean theorem; Based on this and other findings, Pythagorean theory of Pythagoras has been found to be known to humans thousands of years ago.
  • As a matter of fact, mathematical activities are seen in very early times in many nations such as ancient Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians produced a calendar of 365 days in 4200 BC, a system was used to quantify millions in a clan of 3100 BC. The existence of mathematical activity and development in ancient Mesopotamia is known with the help of clay tablets obtained from archaeological investigations.
  • Findings of mathematical activity remained in Mesopotamia from almost all of the different kingdoms in power over time; Belonging to the Sumerians from the 3rd millennium BC, from the 2nd millennium BC belonging to Akad and Babyll, belongs to the Assyrians in the 1st millennium BC. In addition, there are findings dating back to the 4th century BC from the 6th century BC to the Persians, who later ruled the region. Mathematical activities in Mesopotamia are very diverse and often go beyond practical problems; Linear and second order equations, and various number theories. In addition, the number system has been developed over time by different kingdoms in this land. The Sumerians have taken and used the bases of a number system with a decimal number similar to that used by the ancient Egyptians. This system was later developed by different powers and reached a system of 60 bases in Babylonians.
  • It is known that in the 3rd millennium BC the Indian half was dealt with mathematics and mathematical calculations were made. This mathematical activity also included topics such as measurement items, weight, and measurements in general. It was suggested that the mathematical activities in this period were also related to astronomy in general.
  • As a matter of fact, the astronomical studies, which are carried out together with other branches of science such as mathematics, which have religious aspects, are of great importance and place in antiquity. The mathematical manifestations of the phenomena related to astronomy are found in scientific events in ancient Mesopotamia. Just as there are astronomical activities to meet the calendar needs in China, mathematical development was used in Mesopotamia to make calculations about the planets’ cycles and their positions. Separately from the mathematical development, astronomy studies and understanding have found its place in Maya civilization based in Central America; Especially calendrical studies and calculations of solar and lunar eclipses have played an important role.
  • It is also possible to find the origins of the sciences outside these in ancient times. Biology, for example, has taken a very important social role in the development of civilization, especially in terms of agriculture. Many things have been discovered after the examination of the plants; For example, archaeological discoveries have discovered that the Babylonians are made of the palm tree, and that pollen is masculine and pollen can be transferred to females to produce. In antiquity there have also been medical studies in conjunction with biology, and various civilizations in China, Egypt and the Indian Peninsula have used different medicinal plants for certain medical and anatomical problems and have expressed their use from time to time in writing. In addition to medicine, sciences such as chemistry, geography and geology have developed to a great extent in China.
  • Science and philosophy
  • The early philosopher’s attempt to understand the world and its surroundings led to curiosity, the emergence of certain criteria, and their transformation into various ideologies. Until the foundation of science, discussion and experimentation have been developed by people and turned into a quest. In the early periods there is no distinct philosophy-science distinction and philosophers of many great scientists at the same time. Trying and becoming a cliché has made it possible for science to come to the desired level. The science of development up to the 19th century has in fact fought a war in itself, many original researchers have been defeated by medieval leaders who move with plain logic. Having a different mindset than Aristotle’s philosophy, Galileo began to contradict the scientists of his time. Science has been constantly witnessing such scenes in the historical process, and others have taken the place of the laws that are the result of experimentation and observation.
  • The philosophy that investigates the truth and purpose of existence requires systematic thinking. Starting with classical antiquity philosophy, philosophers such as Thales, Anaksimenes, Pythagoras, Demokritos, Gorgias, Empedocles, Heraklitos, Parmanides, Socrates, Plotinos, Plato and Aristotle have provided the shaping of ever-evolving and shaped philosophical questions. The philosophy that Christianity used as a tool in its medieval philosophy of religion has been used extensively in the axis of God, knowledge and belief. The philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment has come to the forefront. The basic idea in the system of thought is to move towards the definite truths and knowledge that the human mind has enlightened. Renaissance philosophy, known as transitional philosophy, involves a period in which new developments in science and thought systems take place. The renaissance, which means rebirth, is the bridge to the transition from the previous ages to a very different system of thought.
  • The disintegration of science and philosophy has become clearer when it comes to the modern age, and philosophy and science are not completely disconnected from each other, and science philosophy, which in general is the philosophy of science, maintains the existence of philosophical branches (such as physics philosophy) which are examined individually from the philosophical point of view. Play important roles.
  • Development of science branches
  • Astronomy and physics
  • Celestial science is the oldest among science branches and is a science that is regarded as the pivotal point of science, especially in the most ancient times. People’s interest in the sky has led to the study of the objects hanging above, and with the presence of the telescope these observations have become more effective. Compared to the Babylonian factual astronomers, Greek astronomers have absorbed the mathematical details and formed the basic points in the development of this science.
  • Batlamyus, who lived in Egypt under the rule of the Roman Empire, has an important position especially in terms of astronomy history and science history in general. Hè Megalè Syntaxis, which was later called the al-Mecisti by the astronomers of Islam, was a work of astronomy named “The Great Compilation” and was a general accepted astronomy during the Middle Ages, and as a writer, Ptolemy was almost mythical. The universe model of Ptolemy was geocentric, ie, it was geocentric, and the transition from this long-accepted system to a solar-centered system led to controversy.
  • Nikolas Copernicus, a Polish astronomer, explained that the earth and other planets were spinning around the sun; Heliocentric, ie a solar-centered system. He introduced Copernicus’s system to his friends with a treatise named Commentariolus and then his system, Papa III. In detail, which he dedicated Paulus, he described it in his masterpiece De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. This has led to a new era in the science of astronomy. Galileo Galilei, an Italian scientist known for his telescope development, his astronomical observations and his support for the system of Copernicus, is also an important one for the history of astronomy and physics, and over time has been a reference to such references as the father of modern observational astronomy and the father of modern physics. In 1671, mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton, who made the first mirrored telescope, cast the foundations of differential and integral calculus, which made a great contribution to the development of the science branches he was working on. In addition, Newton’s book, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published on July 5, 1687, contains important topics such as Newton’s laws of motion and gravity, which constitute the foundations of classical mechanics.
  • The German theoretical physicist Albert Einstein proved that E = mc² is equivalent to the mass of the light velocity of the energy velocity of the energy. Proving that the space time twist and the time, space, motion are dependent on each other with the general theory of relativity and relativity theory proved atomic existence with brown motion. Includes topics such as the book of evolution of physics that he wrote with Leopold Infeld, as well as quantum and space.
  • Chemistry
  • Chemistry is a science that examines the structure and behavior of matter. Physical chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry are fundamental branches. Organic chemistry is the most well-known organic chemistry because of its use in medicine, medicine, paint, cosmetics and textiles, which is a vital part of many sciences such as medicine.
  • In ancient times the material was thought to be made up of certain basic elements, and in many cultures these included air, water, fire and earth. However, some of the ancient Greek philosophers have suggested the idea of ​​an atom, and suggested that everything came into being from very small building blocks. These philosophers were later called atomic philosophers. Since ancient times, people have been dealing with metallurgy, using chemical phenomena in the making of various incidents and the resulting products; For example in the production of glassware. Alchemy tradition emerged towards the Middle Ages. The tradition of alchemy is the forerunner of the chemistry and it is a mixture of researches of chemical and various things such as mysticism, philosophy. There were two important concepts and objectives in the alchemy: a legendary one, sometimes called philosophical stone, which will help to turn any kind of metal or metal into gold, and the other is immortality or immortality that will promise a very long life.
  • Over time, the interest in the alchemy has become more scientific, and chemistry has emerged separately from the alchemy. Robert Boyle is a name that has significant contributions to the disintegration of modern chemistry and the removal of its foundations.
  • Today Boyle was known as a scientist who advocated the idea of ​​Boykle, which he gave his name especially. The French scientist Antoine Lavoisier has taken an important step in the history of science, both in chemistry and conservation law, and has also been remembered as the father of chemistry. He also identifies and names oxygen and hydrogen.
  • By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the fact that, contrary to other physical sciences, the predominance of induction in deduction led to its closer to biological sciences. But the end of the application of mathematics and physics to chemistry is the result of a new branch of science, the birth of physicochemistry, in particular Wilhelm Ostwald, Van’t Hoff and Arrhenius.
  • Physical sciences such as electrochemistry, colloid chemistry, nuclear chemistry, and polymer chemistry, which describe the physical changes of chemical substances by exploiting the properties of chemical substances, and the physicochemistry which was divided into branches by the scholars, were published in 1881 as Zeitschrift Für Physikalische Chemie Has taken its place.
  • The curiosity of people learning and researching has led to the emergence of analytical (analytical) chemistry over time, which in time has laid the foundation for the development of coordination chemistry and industrial analytical chemistry.
  • The discovery of analytical methods has widespread use of chemistry in medicine, biology and genetics. The discovery of penicillin and vitamins, as well as the fact that the science of chemistry has increased the quality of human life, has led to the environmental problems that have arisen in the production processes of developing technology, which resulted in the waste of natural resources.
  • For this reason, branches of sub-science such as environmental chemistry and water chemistry have also developed.
  • Mathematics and Geometry
  • It is known that a wide variety of tribes, such as ancient Egyptians, Mesopotamans, Indians, where mathematics plays an important role in scientific activities in antiquity, are mathematical.
  • Tales, one of the most important figures of Greek mathematics, continued to learn geometry during his stay in Egypt and to teach him about these artifacts. The famous theorem of Pythagoras, which is known as the father of the numbers, has brought him a considerable number among the greatest scientists of his time.
  • The Middle Ages have been the scene of intensive studies, especially of Indian and Islamic mathematicians. As early as 499, the Indian mathematician Aryabhata created the first sinusoidal trigonometric tables and developed algorithms and techniques for algebra, differential equations and infinitesimal values. In the 12th century, another Indian mathematician Bhaskara first laid the foundations of differential calculus and basic concepts. Islamic scientists have also made many mathematical discoveries and discoveries in the Middle Ages. In the 9th century, al-Harezmi gave important works on the Indian-Arab numeral system and the solution of equations. As a matter of fact, the word of the algorithm is derived from the fact that the name has suffered from the Latinization. In particular, due to the conservation and the new developments brought about by the old inventions in the area of ​​algebra, Harezmi has been called as the father of the algebra over time. Ömer Hayyam, another mathematician who lived in the 12th century, criticized Euclid’s work and laid the foundations of analytic geometry and Euclidean geometry. He is also the first mathematician to bring a general, geometric solution to cubic equations.
  • One of the most important mathematicians in the West in the Middle Ages was Fibonacci. Fibonacci has introduced the Arabic numerical system to Europe and has been leading it to become widespread, and today it has expanded the number sequence called Fibonacci numbers. In fact, this number is not itself the first to discover the sequence, but after being used as an example in his book, they have gained fame in the West.
  • In the 17th and 18th centuries, the mathematical upheaval in the West has led to many important mathematical discoveries. Scottish John Napier explored natural logarithms, revealing the mathematical laws of Kepler planetary movements, and René Descartes developed the Cartesian coordinate system, and thus analytical geometry, which is still widely used today. The German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz has developed his calculus with his many works on the calculus and has taken the foundations of the notation used today. Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal laid the foundations for the theory of probability and thus discovered the relevant combinatorial rules. Pascal is also the father of the Pascal theory and the developer of the Pascal triangle (although he was previously known and used in the East). In the 18th century, mathematician Leonhard Euler developed the notion of function and numerous notations in mathematics (eg notation e as the base of the natural logarithm). He has made important works in various fields such as number theory, graph theory, geometry, and has made important discoveries.
  • The German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who lived in the 19th century, has achieved great success in mathematics and in many other sciences; Theorem Egregium, which has proven to be the basic theory of the algebra (or the basic theorem of the algebra), has been an important work in complex and varied functions. George Boole, who lived in the 19th century, also introduced Boole algebra, a new type of algebra whose name he is a father.
  • Medicine
  • The first developments in science of medicine have occurred in Asia. In India, Egypt, China, Iran and Greece, medical science has begun to develop in a systematic way and developments in the health field, which is one of the biggest problems of humanity as a science, have lasted for centuries.
  • Medicine and dentistry existed on the peninsula of India since the Indus Valley civilization. As a matter of fact, Ayurveda, an Indian medical tradition, continues to exist as well as contemporary medicine today. Until the British colonized the Indian peninsula, Ayurveda, the primary medical system in the region, used mercury-sulfur based medicines in its early days. Apart from this, various plants such as turmeric, which are known to have various medical benefits today, have also been used in classical Indian medicine in treatments.
  • There is a traditional medical tradition in China that continues its existence from antiquity to day-to-day. Traditional Chinese medicine, which is a result of empirical disease and discomfort observations made by Taoist doctors and Chinese thought, has a variety of practical methods such as herbal treatment, acupuncture and massage. Apart from these, mental therapies such as nutritional therapy and Feng Shui also take place in traditional Chinese medicine.
  • Hippocrates’s use of proven therapies to treat illnesses and superstitious beliefs, rather than providing a cure for illness and superstition, has led to the beginning of comprehension of patient care in medical science. Treatment methods that differ initially by region have begun to modernize for the past two centuries and have become a collective effort in the general sense. Medical science, which has developed further after the outbreaks in Europe, has reached very high levels with the development of genetic studies.
  • Throughout the Middle Ages, many important Islamic physicians grew up in the lands spread by Islam, especially in the Middle East. One of them is often seen as a pioneer in Iranian Razi, neurosurgical and ophthalmologic branches. Emphasizing the importance of experimental medicine, Razi is also the father of the pediatrics branch for many. Razi is also the first physician to distinguish and clearly describe and diagnose herpetic disease with measles disease. He is the first physician in the field of allergy and immunology. Another well-known Muslim physician is Ibn-i Sina. The 14-volume masterpiece al-Kanun fi’t-Tıb (Medicine Law) is a medicine named after the discovery of infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases, the introduction of quarantine in order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, the presumption of the presence of microorganisms and neuropsychiatry. Many discoveries and inventions.
  • There have been important medical discoveries in the Middle Ages and later in the West. William Harvey has been the first Western to accurately and accurately describe the circulation of blood in the West, while Garcia has emerged as the pioneer of Central tropical medicine and correctly identifies many tropical diseases, cholera in particular. Later in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur found the first successful rabies vaccine, and for the first time introduced the pasteurization process to take its name. Louis Pasteur, along with Robert Koch and Ferdinand Cohn, is regarded as one of the fathers of microbiology. Robert Koch, who received the Nobel Prize in 1905, is also the first to isolate important bacterial pathogens such as Tuberculosis bacillus and Vibrio cholera. He later developed Koch’s postulates to be referred to by his name.
  • Biology
  • As a science fiction, the biology that develops with the present subdivisions until the 19th century is a system that examines all the features of living things. Especially human beings are divided into botanicals, botanicals that ignores plants, zoology that livens animals, microbiology that does not microorganisms.
  • Aristo has done a lot of work on nature and has studied and categorized many species of plants and animals. Aristotle’s views have long been an authority, especially in the West, with the additions made by some of his later scientists.
  • In the Middle Ages, especially Muslims such as Ibn Nefis, Ibn Cahiz and Ibn Baytar, scientists contributed to the field of biology. Especially contributing to the idea of ​​early evolution, Ibn Cahiz is the person who first introduced the idea of ​​food chain. Al-Dinaveri, who lived in the 9th century, studied plant evolution, development of plants, and contributed to botanical science by describing many species in Kitab’s-Nebat named work. A student of al-Nabati, another scientist, Ibni Baytar has prepared a (pharmaceutical) encyclopedia of pharmacy and defined it in many plants, foods and medicinal works. The Latin translation of this work was later used by European scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries. Ibn Nefis correctly identified the pulmonary and coronary circulation and defined the concept of metabolism.
  • The theory of modern evolution, counted from the bases of biology, was built on the views of Charles Darwin. Darwin has expressed his views on the Origin of Species, Man’s Growth, and the Choice of Sex, and the Expression of Emotions in Human and Animal. Gregor Mendel, who laid the foundations of genetic science by pairing the peas in the garden of the monastery, formed the building blocks of classical genetic laws.
  • Sociology
  • Although it is defined as a new science branch relative to other branches of science, sociological sociological studies and observations have existed since ancient times. It is possible to find sociological observations and evaluations in the works of names such as Herodotus and Tukididis.
  • There is various evidence for the existence of an early Islamic sociology. The Islamic thinker Ibn Khaldun has pioneered the development of sociology as a branch of social philosophy by first formulating various sociological theories in the preface Mukaddime, which he wrote in his seven volumes on analyzing universal history. For example, through this work, Ibn Khaldun proposed the science of science as a new science and defined it as follows: “This science … has its own specific theme, namely (human) society, and its own problems ), That is, successive social transformations in the nature of society … “In addition, he took an important step in terms of philosophy of history and philosophy of history.
  • Auguste Comte is the name of sociology as the father of sociology, although the sociology is used before it, but as a queen of sociology as ‘the queen of positive sciences’, who independently repeats the term. However, in general Comte is not seen as the founder of sociology. The first names engaged in sociology in the West were generally influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution, and particularly analogously, comparing living organisms and society. Some examples of such names are Herbert Spencer and Lewis Henry Morgan. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, classical sociologists such as Émile Durkheim, Vilfredo Pareto, and Max Weber have made important contributions.
  • Political Science
  • Political science has developed since the ancient times with political activities, and there has been an important social science discipline. From the Vedic texts of ancient India, to various later Buddhist texts, there are many studies and studies on politics in the texts. Indian political thinker Dana (350-283 BC) is known for his work Arthashastra, which deals with issues such as political thought, economy and social order. Similarly, there are many political ideas in Ancient Greece; A great variety of political ideas and studies can be found in the works of early authors such as Homeros, Hesiodos and Tukididis, and in the works of philosophers such as Plato and Aristo. Eflatun explained and examined the ideal political structure and administration in his famous work.
  • In the Middle Ages, various works emerged that deal with different political views and relations between religion and politics. The work of Augustinus, like the work of God’s City, contributed to the understanding of religion-politics relations in the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, also in Islamic lands, there have been various political thoughts and examinations, and from this era politics, Have emerged. For example, in the 11th century, Politics, written by Nizamulmulk, was the subject of state administration and state affairs. Political literature and the tradition of examination continued until the later ages. For example, in the Ottoman Empire an intense politics and reform traditions emerged, such as Muhyî-i Gülşeni, Hasan Kafî al-Akhisârî and Kâtip Çelebi contributed to the political science of the East.
  • During the Italian Renaissance, writer Niccolò Machiavelli came to an important place in terms of the history of political science with his work named Prince (Il Principe). In the work, the ruling government in different situations explains what priority should be given to each situation and what kind of policy should be followed. In the Middle Ages and later periods, many different forms of political power and state structure have been advocated by different names. For example, the French lawyer Jean Bodin was known for his work on six books on the state and government he wrote on the state and government, defending absolutism.
  • Political science as a science began to be structured in the academic sense in the 19th century. In 1880, the first school of political science in the United States was established. Then, in 1903, the American Political Science Association was established. Academic studies on political science continued increasingly, and political science departments were opened in many different universities.
  • Psychology
  • Today, most concepts, events and phenomena in psychology are philosophical disincentives in ancient civilizations such as India, China and Egypt. Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, have also included in psychology various articles in their writings and ideas. However, clinical and experimental approaches to psychology have been initiated by Muslim scientists in the Middle Ages.
  • The first institutions that can be described as mental hospitals have emerged in the 8th century in Islamic lands. As a matter of fact, Muslim physicians have begun to develop various therapies and practices against the disorders they have termed as “mental illnesses” since the earliest times. Ahmad bin Sehl al-Belhi is the first to dispute and separate the body and mental illnesses; And that psychological illnesses may also cause the body to become sick over time. He also described the disorder called depression today and mentioned two types: depression, which can occur from causes such as first loss or failure, and which can be treated with psychological means, and the other is from unknown physiological causes, which are usually unknown but can be treated with physical methods. Another important scholar in the field of psychology is Ibn Sina. Ibn-i Sina examined and identified many situations today, such as hallucinations, insomnia, mania, nightmares, melancholy, dementia, epilepsy, stroke and tremor, which are defined as neuropsychiatric conditions.
  • The philosopher René Descartes contributed to the formation of the foundations of the modern philosophical form of psychology in the West. Descartes, who deals with important psychological issues in his various works, is known to have made various anatomy studies even though he is not a physician himself. The British physician Thomas Willis played a major role in the introduction of psychology as a medical discipline and has made great contributions to psychology through intense anatomical studies of psychological approaches to brain functions. It was also the great influence of philosophers such as John Locke and David Hume in the development of experimental psychology.
  • It has been a topic of discussion such as hypnotism and phrenology which emerged as a treatment in the context of the modern era, especially in cases of psychological disorders. Especially whether these are really effective methods and whether there is any scientific basis. The German experimental psychological movement, which emerged later, was found to have important contributions to psychology. The anatomical and physiological discoveries of the neurological structure at this time positively affected the psychology. German physician Wilhelm Wundt opened a first experimental psychology laboratory in 1879. Beginning in the 1890s, Austrian physician Sigmund Freud gave psychology a new direction by his approach called psychoanalysis. Although the scientific position of psychoanalysis is still controversial, the various propositions and concepts of psychoanalysis have gained an important place in Western culture in general terms. Ivan Pavlov also successfully demonstrated classical conditioning with his experiments on dogs in the 1890s. As a matter of fact, various animals such as non-human primates, keds and dogs were used in psychological experiments.

 

 

 

  • Anthropology
  • Although the roots of anthropology have been linked to the modern process of Enlightenment in the West and its early modern thinking, much of the anthropological research has been conducted long before these periods. For example, al-Biruni has found many researches on the peoples, traditions and religions of the Indian peninsula, and a wide range of research and studies that will enter into the field of anthropology in general has been eventually called “the first anthropologist”. He has done important comparative studies on Biruni, Middle East, Mediterranean basin and South Asian culture and religions. In addition, Ibn Khaldun and Biruni were praised by some scholars for their contribution to Islamic anthropology.
  • Institutionally, the development of anthropology was born from the history of nature, and in the early periods, especially the examination of the life in the colonies of the European powers under control, investigated the indigenous people and their phenomena (culture, language, religion). Anthropology was influenced by scientific developments in the nineteenth century, especially in the 1860s, particularly those in the biology and philology. From leading anthropologists, British Edward Burnett Tylor has made anthropological conclusions based on Darwin’s theory of evolution, arguing that the development of civilization is directly proportional to the development of cognition. He also considered some contemporary rural or hunter-gatherer peoples as primitive or “primitive” in view of evolutionary development. At the beginning of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, anthropology continued to focus on peoples regarded as less socially less developed. In the second half of the 20th century, anthropologists began to deal with more complex structures in Third World countries, and later, with the 1970s, they began to anthropologically examine contemporary Western countries as a great step forward in anthropology. In anthropological studies focusing on contemporary European and North American countries, society in general, ethnic and religious minorities have been the subject of discussion; This is interpreted as a conversion of a Western, divergent anthropologist to the West, and Western perspectives, those whose blood is not Western, constantly being tested.
  • Daily accurate
  • From the beginning of the 20th century onward progress has gained great momentum and the academic environment has taken a more favorable research environment and has triggered this progress. Dealing with science has become a prestige and has begun to show its effects. The Nobel Prize given to Alfred Nobel‘s will from 1901 shows the prestige of science. With such awards, awareness incentives are being increased and the necessary funds for research are being sought.
  • Contributors to the modernization of science
  • The contributions made by Marie Curie, the founder of radiology, have caused great repercussions in the field of chemistry. His work in the area of ​​radioactivity brought him Nobel in physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911. An article on Albert Einstein‘s publication in the German Annalen der Pysik magazine, An Opinion on the Formation and Transformation of Light, A New Specification of Molecular Dimensions and Electrodynamics of Moving Objects led to the opening of a new page for physics. General relativity and Special relativity are considered to be the most complicated and mysterious theories presented by Einstein to physics. Einstein, considered to be one of the most important scientists of the century, was awarded the Nobel Prize for his description of photoelectric effect in 1921
  • His contributions to mathematics from childhood have made Carl Friedrich Gauss one of the building blocks of this science. Gauss has made important contributions to the theory of numbers, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism and astronomy. Progress in the field of mathematics has begun to differ from Gauss and the theory of relativity has developed thanks to the geometry of Bernhard Riemann, one of his students.
  • In the 20th century Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan developed over 3,000 theories; Hypergeometric series, prime number theory, gamma function, and so on. Kurt Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem has a very important place in mathematics. Godel described his theorem, which changed the 20th century mathematical point of view, in the doctoral thesis under the title on Formal Decision-Making Proposals of Mathematics such as Principia Mathematica. In the 20th century in general, many new mathematical fields such as complexity theory, game theory, and topology have emerged.
  • Francis Crick, James Dewey Watson, and Maurice Wilkins, scientists who found the structure of DNA in 1953, have made a major contribution to the development of genetics. The solution of DNA that carries genetic information is one of the most important scientific studies of the century. Detection of diseases can be possible without further illnesses, as Genetics advances in new technological conditions.
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