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Rationalism

  • What does Rationalism mean?
  • Rationalism; The philosophical view that the truth of knowledge is not based on sensation and experience, but on the basis of thought.
  • Definition of rationalism and general history
  • Rationalism is the source of knowledge is the mind; Is the name given to philosophical approach which defends the thesis that correct information can be obtained only by reason and thought. Accordingly, precise and universal knowledge can only be achieved through intellectually and with a deductive methodological approach. Advocate that information that is important to the world can only be obtained through experimental methods. Rationalism confirms that there are various “a priori” and obvious truths, assuming that each individual has equal and unchangeable rational and logical principles.
  • Recently, the existence of “a priori” information has often been rejected, except for some linguists writings about some linguistic concepts, and their domain and position have been narrowed even if accepted.

 

  • According to this view, the definitive example of knowledge is Mathematics.He argues that truth and knowledge of the subject can only be attained with reason. For this reason rationalism is against your empiricism. The approach to reason is an approach that compares in many contexts with the revelation or ethical feelings and feelings of Dhoun. However, philosophical reasoning is often compared with insight (not with innocence).

 

  • The rational tradition in the West begins with the Elements, Pythagorean and Plato (the theory of intelligence self-sufficiency is New-Platonic and idealistic dominant contact) (Runes, 263). Ever since the Enlightenment, rationality tries to present the methods of mathematics to the service of philosophy. Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza, for example (Bourke, 263). Rationalism is often known as continental philosophy in Europe because empiricism is more dominant in England. Indeed, philosophers’ thoughts, such as Leibniz and Spinoza, were often compared to those of British experimental philosophers.
  • But when these rationalist and empiricist trends and philosophers’ rational and experimental ideas are examined in detail, it is not a correct action or point of view. From a broad perspective, a philosopher can be both rational and experimental (Lacey, 286-287).
  • At the extreme, empiricism rejects all kinds of knowledge without experience, and asserts that all kinds of knowledge are acquired through experience. Rationalism argues that at the extreme, information can be made completely and in the best way with pure reason without experience and perception.
  • So the basic argument between empiricism and rationality is the source of knowledge. However, this does not mean that all rationalists have suggested that natural sciences can be fully understood without the help of experiential knowledge and perceptions.
  • Indeed, most rationalist philosopher experiments have at least given particular importance, and no rationalist school at an extreme point in time has emerged (Hatfield).

 

  • As a philosophical school, rationalism and the basic principles it contains were subjected to a great criticism in the 18th century. However, in this period, if the numbers were few, philosophers advocated wisdom. For example, German Christian August Crusius and German Moses Mendelssohn. The greatest criticism of rationality in the 18th century came from experimental circles. However, for example, the German philosopher Kant also criticized the traditional rational thought school. Kant seeks to base a new rationalistic idea on a critical assessment. When the tradition of rationalism is taken into consideration from the beginning, many different types of antagonism are encountered in the form of rationalistic interpretations or approaches.

 

  • Rationalism in the antiquity philosophy
  • The tradition of rationalism can be started with the Elea School. The first rational philosopher is Parmanides. According to him, senses can not be grounded in knowledge because they are things that can be changed; on the contrary, unchanging principles can be based on knowledge. Eleanor Zenon has taken the wisdom of his teacher Parmanides further. Behind the paradoxes that prove the unreliability of the senses, rationalism is based on thought. Plato, on the other hand, is known as the person who shapes rationalism as a theory of ideals. Plato is the leading figure in the deductive method known as the methodological principle of rationalization. It should also be mentioned as one of the founding names of rationality in Aristotle.

 

  • Rational philosophers on continental philosophy
  • In general terms, one has to approve and accept two basic points in order to be named rationally:
  • “Rational intuition is a priori source of all or part of our knowledge, and The truth is that a priori knowledge is possible “(Cassam)

 

  • The most important names in the West, rationalist beginning with the Elements, are Descartes, Spinoza, Malebranche and Leibniz.
  • The Cartesian soul concept, which has the dualistic structure (which contains the mind-body division), which Descartes regards as the result of the claims and metaphysical principles of metaphysics, is a crucial point for the tradition of rationalism in Europe. Indeed, rational views of Descartes’ metaphysics were widely accepted and in the second half of the 17th century, along with their physical views, they were also taught in many teaching centers as books. Descartes’ views have also influenced the philosophers who follow him. As a matter of fact, the idea of ​​the ontological dualism of the person Descartes reveals is a widely accepted argument even in modern societies.

 

  • Another famous rational philosopher, Spinoza, initially adopted Descartes ‘metaphysical assertions, but gradually developed a different metaphysical understanding by abandoning Descartes’ arguments as his minds matured and developed. Rejecting Kartesian mind-body dualism Spinoza also rejected the idea that God existed separately from the created world. According to him, there was only one eternal being. These ideas and metaphysical explanations of Spinoza are very important in terms of pantheism in the West. Metaphysical assertions are included in his detailed work titled Ethics. In addition, religion has also made a rational criticism (Hatfield).

 

 

 

  • Malebranche, generally adopting the views of Descartes’ metaphysics with the concept of Cartesian soul, has left Descartes, arguing that rational ideas are largely independent of individual minds, existed in God, and that God provided this information to the people in a divine sense when God needed it.

 

  • Like other philosophers, Leibniz was also the follower of Descartes’ ideas. Later, however, he defended the metaphysical ideas he developed by rejecting Descartes’ ideas. Leibniz thinks that the world created by God consists of conscious and separate small entities. Later, he gave monad names to these beings (Monadology, 1714). Also in Leibniz’s mind, God created the world as the best of all possible worlds, which means the best, the perfect, the complete. This idea was later criticized by many philosophers.

 

  • Kantian rationalism
  • The most fundamental criticism of rationalism comes from Kant, a specific rationalist. Kant reveals his basic critique of this point in his work titled Critique of Criticism (1781) and explains its philosophical principles. The philosophical problems of both empiricism and rationalization have been critically evaluated and attempted to be overcome in Kant’s philosophy. In this respect, the founder of the philosophical tradition called critical philosophy is Kant, and he has tried to get rid of the inadequacies of empiricism and rationalism in this way. While Kant was investigating the boundaries and structure of human knowledge, he was interested in determining the theoretical status of the mind in one hand and trying to determine the theoretical boundaries of all kinds of experiences on the other. In the Critique of Pure Reason, there is a comprehensive attempt to examine the essential nature of experience. Kant accepts the existence of a priori and a posteriori knowledge, classifies them as different kinds of knowledge, and evaluates the inadequacies of previous philosophical traditions on the basis of these categories.

 

  • Hegelian rationalism
  • The tradition of rationalism shows a developmental line from Parmanides to Hegel, on which a very different understanding of rationality is encountered. Despite the different definitions of rationalism; Hegel is at the pinnacle of that thought, if we treat it as a reason to treat the death of truth as a common item of this philosophical tradition. The Hegelian dialectical method has emerged as a method of rationalizing itself within itself. Hegel’s famous saying, “Everything that is real is rational, everything that is rational is real” is seen as the most concise statement of all rationalism.

 

  • Enlightenment and rationalism
  • Along with enlightenment, the notions of reason and rationality have gained a different meaning. Rather than a philosophical emphasis, the rationalist name for feudal and religious institutions and practices and social and political practices criticized on the basis of rationality and rationality began to be called rationalism, and this kind of critical approach began to be called rationalism. It is in this context that philosophical principles also become the founding principles of a new orientation in social order. In this sense, rationalism expresses approaches based on rational social regulations against religious social organizations that adopt as a wisely founding principle. What is Kant’s Enlightenment? The answer, in the form of the question, “man is to use his own mind”, indicates that the mind is a philosophical principle in enlightenment. According to this, the intellect which is a universal foothold will be able to make a rational arrangement that social life can apply to all.

 

  • List of philosophers and thinkers in rationalism
  • Farabi
  • Parmanides
  • Elealı Zenon
  • Aristoteles
  • Isaac Asimov
  • René Descartes
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Robert A. Heinlein
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Gottfried Leibniz
  • Jim Herrick
  • H. P. Lovecraft
  • Nicolas Malebranche
  • Thomas Paine
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Platon
  • Gene Roddenberry
  • Bertrand Russell
  • Abraham Kovoor
  • Joseph Edamaruku
  • Barbara Smoker
  • Baruch Spinoza
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Voltaire
  • Herakleitos
  • Sokrates

 

Rationalism
Author: wik Date: 9:02 pm
Philosophy and Religion, Science and Mathematics

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