Quasar

  • What does quasar mean?
  • Quasar is the name given to a galaxy shining with a high energy at the farthest corners of the universe. It is known that the universe was formed during the young and turbulent period.
  • It was thought that the giant black holes in the centers gained enormous brightness because of the massive amount of gravitational force emitted by the material which emitted heat and emitted intense radiation.
  • For this reason, the widespread view was that the quasars were in the galaxy rich giants, or in the center of the galaxies, which had collided with others.

 

  • However, observations made with infrared telescopes on 10 quadrants at 10 billion light-years away from the world reveal that hostile clouds are small clouds, showing energy-efficient nuclei with energy outputs of 1045 to 1048 erg / s.
  • A quasar is a radio source that is far away and contains a lot of team stars. Quasars is very bright and energetic, first determined by the amount of red shift. These are the spectrum of electromagnetic waves between radio waves and visible light.
  • These waves come from point sources that look like stars to us from wide-area light sources such as galaxies
  • Although there are controversial views on the nature of these objects until the early 1980’s, the currently agreed scientific view is the following: Quasar is a compressed field at the center of a very large galaxy. In addition, the center of this area is surrounded by many massive black holes.
  • Their size ranges from 10 to 10000 times the radius of Schwarzschild. Growth around a quadruple degenerate is reinforced by the disk.

 

  • Quasar Overview
  • Very rapid red shift is observed in quasars. This effect stems from the expansion of the universe between the quasar and the Earth. If we interpret this phenomenon together with the Hubble law, the amount of skewed redness indicates that quasars are far away. They also tell us they are very old.
  • Quasars are at the center of the brightest, widest, and most energetic most active objects (the energy they store is 200-400 thousand times the energy that the Samarium spends). This emitted radiation spectrum is between X-rays and ultraviolet rays near infrared. Some quasars can emit strong radio waves and gamma waves.
  • They were not distinguishable from the stars because they resembled a few points on the first photographs of the quasars, but they could be understood by examining the spectra of the beaks themselves. Infrared telescopes and Hubble telescopes have been found in some cases where hot galaxies are encircled by quasars.

 

  • The brightest quasar Virgo in the sky is the C 273, also found on the team star. The apparent magnitude is 12.8, but the absolute magnitude is 26.7. Though this celestial body is 13 billion light years away, it is almost as bright as our sun.
  • The brightness of this quasar is about a hundred times the size of our galaxy, another trillion times the size of our sun. Large active nuclei can be associated with very strong matter and energy. It is also preferably in the direction of its own jet.
  • Although the universe contains billions of galaxies, billions of active nuclei can be seen today. Statistically, a certain amount of jet energy should point towards us, and some should point to another direction. Sometimes the quasars look brighter because of this. Because the jets are aimed at us.

 

  • The hyper-bright quasar, APM 0827975155 was discovered in 1988. Absolute power is -32.2. The Hubble Space Telescope and the 10 m Keller telescope have been identified with the aid of high resolution photographs. Apart from some special techniques, these galaxies emitted too little light to appear against the light emitted by the quasars.
  • Most quasars are not visible by small telescopes, but the 3C373 telescope is an exception, even though it has an average value. An object at 2.44 billion distant is one of the farthest astronomical objects observable with amateur equipment.
  • The apparent brightness of some quasars varies in the optical range. Especially and often change in X-rays. Because these changes are too fast for the upper limits of the definition of quasars.
  • These quasars are not wider than the Solar System. The variability of this luminosity mechanism also influences the relativistic change of the rays. Known for the quasars, a large red shift was recorded from Ulas J1120 + 0641. The numerical value of this redshift is 7,085. This value indicates a realistic distance of about 29 milliseconds light years.

 

  • Quasars are believed to have been strengthened by the strengthening of the massive black holes in the core of distant galaxies. Because the light can not escape from a massive black hole. This escape energy is actually due to gravity bending and a very large friction.
  • Very large masses can be detected in quasars.

 

  • Features of Quasars
  • Most of the known 200,000 quasars have been identified with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All quasar spectra observed have a redshift value of 0.056 to 7.085.
  • This red shift can be found by applying the Hubble law, which is between 600 million and 28.5 billion light years (comoving distance) from us.
  • We can see the quasars and the space around them only in the very ancient times of the universe because of the distance between us and the distance between us and the distance between us and the limited speed of light.

 

  • Most quasars are more than 3 billion light years away. Quasars, although viewed from the Earth as weak, appear so far away from the fact that they are actually the brightest objects in the world.
  • The brightest quasar seen in the sky is the 3C 273 on the Virgo team star. The average apparent size is 12.8 (brilliant enough to be visible with a medium-sized telescope) with an absolute size of -26.7.
  • When viewed from a distance of about 33 light years, this object appears to be as bright in the sky as the Sun appears on Earth. This quasi-solar possesses 4 trillion times more light than it possesses, 100 times the sum of all light energies of massive galaxies such as the Milky Way. However, these calculations were made assuming that the quasar was energized in all directions. An active galactic nucleus may be associated with a strong eruption of the substance and the energy and may primarily be propagating towards its own eruption.

 

  • Most are statistically traced to the thousands of energy jets that have been revealed to us in an era of billions of galaxies with active nuclei that are active billions of years ago, but are now visible – more directly than the others.
  • In many cases, as the brightness of the quasar increases, it is possible that the eruption has directed us more directly.
  • The hyper-bright APM 08279 + 5255 quasar had an absolute size of -32.2 when discovered in 1998. The Hubble Space Telescope and the 10-meter Keck Telescope have shown that the system is gravitational.
  • This system shows a magnification of about 10 times that of a gravitational lens related system. This quasar is still significantly lighter than quasars like 3C 273 around it.

 

  • Quasars were much more prevalent in the early days of the universe. This discovery of Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was a strong proof of Fred Hoyle’s Steady State Cosmology that he was in the Big Bang cosmology. Quasars emerge in places where huge black holes grow rapidly through accumulation.

 

  • These black holes grow in accordance with the mass of stars on the host planet and are not yet understood. According to one idea, the eruptions have caused a process called feedback on behalf of radiation and winds, which stops the formation of new stars on the home planet.

 

  • It is known that radio emissions from the sprays of quasars at the center of some galaxy clusters have the power to prevent the hot gas in these clusters from cooling down to the surface of the central galaxy.

 

  • Quasars have varying degrees of enlightenment that have scales of time that can arrive in time from the hour. This shows that quasars produce and store energy in a very small area, since quasars need to be in contact with each other on a time scale that allows for the coordination of lighting changes.
  • In addition, this means that a quasar that varies in a few weeks time scale will not be farther than a few light weeks away.
  • The release of large quantities of energy from a small area requires a far more powerful source of power than the nuclear sources of stars. The only known process that can produce such a great power constantly is the emergence of the gravitational energies that result from the fall of the material into the black hole.
  • Starbursts like supernovae and gamma ray blasts can do something similar, but only for a few weeks.

 

  • Black holes were overly exotic by some astronomers in the 1960s. These astronomers also suggested that the redshifts came into being because of unknown unknown processes, and that the quasars were not really as far as the Hubble law had pointed them out.
  • Much of the evidence now shows that quasar redshifts are due to the Hubble expansion, and that quasars are stronger than they might have been for the first time, such as optical images of host planets, gravitational lensing, and so on.

 

  • Quasars, with all the properties of active galaxies, are stronger with them; Radiations are not partly thermal and it has been observed that approximately 10% have significant eruptions and lobes similar to radioactive galaxies with particle-like energy moving at significant quantities at relativistic speeds.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Quasars can be detected on all of the observable electromagnetic spectrum, including radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and even gamma rays.
  • While most quasar resting structures, hydrogen is the brightest at the 121.6 nm Lyman-alpha emission line nearer to the violet; But the highest illumination value towards red due to the huge red shifts in these sources was observed at 900 nm in the near infrared range.
  • A small fraction of quasars shows a strong radio emission due to the fact that the emitted material moves at a speed close to the speed of light. When viewed from the eruptions, they appear as blazas (optically intense quasars) and often have zones that depart from the center faster than the speed of light (superluminal expansion). This is an optical eye illusion due to the properties of special relativity.

 

  • Quasar redshifts are visible and are measured by spectral lines dominated by ultraviolet spectra. These lines are brighter than continuous lines, so they are called emission lines. They have widths equal to a few percent of the speed of light. These widths are caused by Doppler shifts due to the high velocity of the gas drawing the strips.
  • Fast movements indicate a large mass in a strong form. The lines of emission of hydrogen (mainly Lyman and Balmer series), helium, carbon, magnesium, iron and oxygen are the emission lines of the brightest. The atoms that make up these lines are located in a range that ranges from neutral to ionic. Electrons broken off from the surface cause the atom to become highly charged.
  • This broad range of ionization indicates that the gas is not only hot, it is also scattered from a quartz and can not be scattered by stars that can not have such a range of ionization. Iron quasars such as IRAS 18508-7815 show strong emission lines due to low-level ionized iron.

 

  • Emission Generation of Quasars
  • Quasar-derived emissions can easily be compared to smaller active galaxies brought to life by giant black holes, as quasars show properties common to all active galaxies. In order to create a 1040-watt light (a typical quasar’s light), a giant black hole needs to consume 10 stars of the equivalent each year. The brightest known quasars swallow material equal to 1000 solar masses every year. It is estimated that the largest of these is the equivalent of 600 Earths per minute. Quasars can be “opened” and “closed” according to their surroundings. Since the quasars can not feed at the same speed for 10 billion years, after they have finished collecting the gas and dust around the quasar, they become an ordinary galaxy.

 

  • Quasars also provide relevant clues to the end of re-ionization in the Big Bang. The oldest known quasars (redshift ≥ 6) show a Gunn-Peterson trophy and have absorption zones in front of them indicating that the intergalactic medium is neutral gas. This indicates that the intergalactic environment has reverted to ionization and converted to plasma, and that the neutral gas exists only in small clouds. Quasars show evidence of heavier elements than helium. This indicates that the galaxies have passed through a gigantic star formation process, creating the Population III stars between the Big Bang and the first observable quasars. Although it remains unconfirmed, the light of these stars may have been observed in 2005 with NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope.
  • Like every active galaxy that is uncovered / uncovered, quasars can also be powerful X-ray sources. At radio intensity, quasars also produce gamma and X-rays, with low-energy photons emitting radio in the jets dropping into the opposite Compton scattering.

 

  • Observation date of quasars
  • The first quasar (3C 48 and 3C 273) was discovered in the early 1950s by Allen Sandange and others. The other radio sources were not visible. Using small telescopes and the Lovell telescope were shown to be of very small size and universal size. Hundreds of objects were uncovered in 1960, In 1960, the radio source, 3C 48, was connected to an elliptical object. The geologists identified the frequency source of the extinct blue star and the location of the light bulb.
  • These abnormal spectra with broad and unknown emission lines were considered abnormal by John Bolton

 

  • In 1962, the border was surpassed. The outer radio source was captured by five hurdles in 3C 273 months. Cyril Hazard and John Bolton made measurements using the Parkes Radio Telescope while observing the holdings. In these observations Maarten Schmit completed these objects and observed scattering using the 200-inch Hale Telescope on Palomar Mountain Recorded.
  • These scatterings were like other emission waves.Schmit said that the scattering length of Hydrogen was 15.8% .This observation showed us that 3C 273 is falling at 47.0000 km / s. This observation also changed the way the quasars observed it and made it impossible to find the emission lengths of other radio sources.
  • According to Bolton’s earlier estimates, the 3C 48’s redshift rate would be 37% of normal light. The first quasar was introduced by Chinese-born American physicist Hong-Yee Chiu in 1964. Quasars are a curiosity according to physicists.
  • Until now, these objects have been defined as Quasi Staller radio sources. These objects have not been known yet. Good termination could only be related to the structure of these objects. We will call them quasar for the sake of simplicity. We use the abbreviation ‘QSO‘ when describing objects.

 

  • This has been the subject of the quasi-Stellar Object. According to another idea, the red color was not due to the expansion of the space, but rather because of the opposition of the gravitational gravity in the very large area. Only stars above the Hayashi limit with sufficient mass could do so.
  • These quasars were able to spread limited quasar emission lines only in the hot forms of the nebula-type gases. At the same time, these quasars gave observable power at low intensity, high intensity. According to us, there were opinions about quasars far away.
  • The most powerful claim about quasars was that nuclear reactions constituted the energies of quasars. A secondary view was that quasars consisted of a regular antimatter. In addition to this allegation, the quasars were very bright. The diaspora was that the quasars were an extension of another cloudlike galaxy.

 

  • According to the disk energy model of 1970, quasars have been shown to be very bright and energy-intensive. The existence of quasars has been accepted by many researchers in the present. According to Einstein’s general relativity theory, two quasars were observed in 1979. 1957 + 561 In the 1980s these quasar models were developed as active galaxies.
  • The big part, on the basis of a simple point of view, states that we can classify quasars as blazers and radio galaxies. Quasars can be explained by large masses in the centers of light shadows, and by converting 10% of these masses into energies. According to the P-P chain reaction, 0.7% of this energy turns into energies in stars like the sun.

 

  • According to this mechanism, the quasars even existed in the early stages of the universe. These quasars swallowed the gasses and dust in their surroundings when they were large mass black holes.
  • This means that we are always active in the Galaxy of the Milky Way and in other Galaxies. There are quasars at a time when we are still able to exist. The reason is that there is no material to feed themselves in their surroundings. For this reason they can not radiate.

 

  • The role of heavenly reference systems
  • Quasars are useful reference points in the sky where a measuring bar is established because they are extremely small, bright and distinct in size. The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) relies on hundreds of extra galactic radio sources, mostly quasars scattered throughout the sky. Because they are too far away, they seemingly stop by our present technology, but their position can be measured with Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Most positions are known to be 0.001 arcsecond or more (size order is better than best optical measurements).

 

  • Multiple quasars
  • It is a quasars beam that is exposed to a multi-view quasar gravity lens (resulting in double, triple, or quadruple forms of the same quadrant). In 1979, the first discovered gravitational lens was double-screened quadrature Q0957 + 561 (or twin quadrants). The grouping of multiple quasars is due to random alignments, physical proximity, real close physical attraction, or the effects of a single quasars beam twisting gravity in two or more views.

 

  • The probabilities of three or more separate quasars around the same site are very low because quadrants are rare objects. The first true quadruplet was observed in 2007 at WM Keck Observatory Mauna Kea Hawai. In 1989, LBQS1429-008 (or QQQ J1432-0106) And a pair of quasars were observed; Rare occurrence of itself. When astronomers discovered the third member, they confirmed that the sources were separate and that it was not the end of the gravitational lens. The triple quasar has a redshift of z = 2.076 (equivalent to 10.5 billion light years). These fractions were estimated at 30-50 kpc (paired galaxies specific). Another example created by the triple quasar lens is PG1115 + 08.
  • In 2013, the second true triple quasars were hosted by the international team of astronomers Farbina of Insubria with QQQ J1519 + 0627 z = 1.51 (about 9 billion light years) redshift, the entire system is housed within 25 ‘(200 kpc estimated distance). The team reached observations at the Calar Alto Observatory at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) with the new technology telescopes (NTT) La Silla Observatory and the 3.5 meter telescope of Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman (CAHA).

 

  • As seen from Earth, where the two cursors are almost in the same direction, they appear to be solitary quasars, but they can be distinguished from the use of telescopes, they are implicitly quoted as double quasars. These are two different quasars, the gravitational lens is not the same quasar. This grouping is similar to optical binary stars. Two quasars, a quasar pair, may be closely related to time and space, and may be gravitationally linked. These quasars can be located in the same galaxy cluster. This grouping resembles two prominent stars in the star cluster. The ” binary quasar ” may be closely gravitationally linked and may form a pair of interacting galaxies. This grouping is similar to this binary star system.

 

Quasar
Author: wik Date: 12:45 pm
Science and Mathematics


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