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Philosophy

  • The word philosophy originates from the Greek φιλοσοφία love, I pursue it, the intellectual activity and discipline pointed out by the term derived from the words “phileo” meaning “looking” and “sophia” meaning knowledge and wisdom. “Phileo” = love “sophia” = descended from knowledge or knowing words. Philosophia = searching for wisdom means loving knowledge, knowledge loving, searching and pursuing. The philosopher is also the person who is trying to reach wisdom.
  • Accordingly, philosophy has meant for the Greeks, ‘love of wisdom’ or ‘quest for wisdom’. According to this original sense of the beginning, every kind of scientific researcher is called “philosopher”.
  • Philosophy; They are studies about general and basic problems related to such subjects as being, knowledge, truth, justice, beauty, truth, reason and language. Philosophy is also known as the art of thought.
  • The philosopher is the person who reaches new (different) results and produces new definitions and new information to express these results. Philosophers have taken an important place in human life by putting new words, phrases and information. With advisory information, people have struggled for an easier life in their lives.
  • Topics of Philosophy
  • Philosophers are often interested in being or existence, morality or goodness, knowledge, truth and beauty. According to the history of philosophy, many philosophers are inclined to religious beliefs or knowing. Philosophers often ask critical questions about these concepts outside science. The search for the answer to the question of philosophy is also a philosophical problem. Philosophers often seek answers to the following questions:
  • What is the truth? How or why do we define an expression as true or false? How do we decide?
  • Is information possible? How do we know what we know? The root and boundaries of the right information?
  • Is there a difference between morally correct or incorrect movements (or values, or institutions)? Which movements are true, which ones are wrong? Are the values ​​absolute or relative? So how should we live? What is the source of morality?
  • What is reality and what is real? What is the nature of what is real? * Could some things exist independently of our perception? What is the nature of time and space? What is the nature of thinking and thinking? What does it mean to be an individual?
  • What is good? What’s the difference between good things? What is Art? (“L.N. Tolstoy – What is Art?”)
  • Is it esthetic? Do they have certain boundaries?
  • What is the root of the concept of religion? Is God a hypothesis based on people’s fears? Is there a God?
  • What kind of connection exists between being, time and space? Is there really any link between these concepts?
  • In the ancient Greek philosophy, the first five from the above questions were called analytical or logical, epistemology, ethics, metaphysics and aesthetics, respectively. Other than these, Aristotle, who used these definitions for the first time, also included politics, modern physics, geology, biology, meteorology and astronomy as topics of philosophy. According to Galileo, the general name of science and arts is philosophy. The Greeks developed a tradition of analysis under the influence of Socrates, and divided them into parts to better understand the subject. This method is used today in science and art.
  • Other traditions have not used such definitions or made the same theme out of the foreground. Although Indian philosophy has similarities with Western philosophy, philosophy in Japanese, Korean and Chinese has not existed until the 19th century, even though they have been interested in philosophy for thousands of years. Especially the Chinese philosophers had a different classification according to the Greeks. Definitions were mostly metaphoric, not general features, and related to several subjects at the same time. However, there are no definite boundaries between them in the Western philosophy, and no theoretical distinction has been made in the work of Western philosophers until the 19th century. As an example, the work of Aristotle did not make sense on its own. What the peripateticists did was to establish links between Aristotle’s work and his subjects and reach general judgments. True philosophy has reached its peak after the Renaissance German Idealism.
  • Objectives of Philosophy
  • Philosophical thought begins by asking people to question their own existence in the universe and in this regard. It is not enough to wonder and ask questions for philosophy. It is also important to give a systematic explanation to the questions. It is also a question of philosophy that the explanation to be brought at the same time should be systematic or systemless. Philosophical thinking is completely different from ordinary thinking. Its distinctive feature is the attempt to be conceptual and / or abstract. The methods of philosophical thinking provide the basis for human reasoning in almost every aspect. Philosophy is a form of critical thinking. Philosophical thought is a reflection on previously acquired knowledge. It is the basic method. This is followed by questioning and explanation.
  • Philosophy is separated from other disciplines by means of questioning. Philosophers; They usually frame their questions as problems or chal- lenges, in order to give clear examples of their suspicions in a subject they find interesting, wonderful, or surprising. These questions usually relate to the assumptions of a lie or the methods people use to make decisions.
  • Philosophers present problems logically. Historically, they have used the rhetoric of traditional rhetoric, Frege and Russell as well as symbolic logic, and then proceed to a conclusion with critical reading and ideas. Like Socrates, they seek answers either by debate or by responding to ideas that others have put forward, or by careful personal thinking. Philosophers have argued over the superiority of these methods to each other, for example, whether philosophical “solutions” provide objective, definitive, Or they were questioned whether the language we talked with gave clearance to the logic or even personal therapy.
  • Language is the most important tool of philosophy. The discussions about philosophical method in analytical philosophy were related to philosophy and dille. There are similar concerns in the continental philosophy. Meta-philosophy, philosophy of philosophy, investigates the nature of philosophical problems, philosophical solutions and methods of solution from problem to problem. These discussions are also related to discussions on language and interpretation. So philosophy is the art of thinking and knowing logic and knowing many things about everything.
  • Philosophical traditions
  • Many societies have investigated philosophical problems and created a tradition of philosophy. In Europe-American academic circles, the term “philosophy” is often used instead of Western Philosophy, the tradition of philosophy that Western European civilization only produces. Eastern Philosophy, which is geographically opposite to it, has a very different structure.
  • Eastern and Middle Eastern philosophical traditions have influenced Western philosophers. Russian, Jewish, Islamic, and recently Latin American philosophical traditions have contributed to Western philosophy and maintained their existence apart from it.
  • Applied Philosophy
  • Philosophical studies have influenced the foundations of society. Philosophy is at the heart of idea-based developments as an activity that reveals critical thinking. Being a master of all sciences is a general practice appellated by philosophy. Ethical and political philosophy comes first in the fields where philosophical studies are applied. The collections of political and economic philosophers such as Confucius, Sun Tzu, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Rushd, Machiavelli, Leibniz, John Locke, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Marx, Mill, Philosophical studies have been the artifacts of state and government movements, including their judgments.
  • Philosophers such as John Dewey, Rousseau and Piaget have formed modern foundations on educational philosophy. Carl von Clausewitz gave artifacts on political warfare and influenced public administration. Logic: is the key role in areas such as mathematics, language arts, psychology, computer engineering.
  • It is an important element of technological development. Epistemology: helps in understanding the qualities of knowledge. Philosophy with this feature; It is a groundbreaking activity in fields such as law, economy and communication. Science philosophy also contributes to the greatest and priority feature of science by providing questioning of knowledge. Aesthetics: evaluates debates in arts fields such as music and literature. He interprets the artistic dimensions of life. Efforts under the name of philosophy have been an area of ​​specialization today. Until the end of the Renaissance, scientists were called philosophers of nature.
  • Philosophical sciences, especially social sciences, have been mentioned as a science of giving birth.
  • Philosophy as a profession
  • It is known that in ancient times philosophers consulted with the public. People ask philosophers questions, get recommendations. He paid for it. Philosophers were not only concerned with philosophy, but also with many issues concerning life. Until the Renaissance, titles such as scientists, counseling, wisdom were equivalent to being “philosophers”. Nature philosophy was used instead of science. Philosophy is perceived as a lifestyle rather than a profession. For example, the philosopher Socrates was a stone worker.
  • He preferred a philosophical lifestyle in his retirement life. Plato was living on family property. He was teaching at the same time. Aristotle had taught many people including Alexander the Great. Over time, philosophers have come to earn their works. Most philosophers are not just busy with philosophy. Writing, teaching, journalism, doctors, historiography, state duties are major activities. Today, philosophers are in the foreground with works of art and education. Graduates of the Philosophy department are generally oriented towards professions such as teachers, writers, journalists, editors, consultants and activists.
  • Disciplines of philosophy
  • Epistemology (Information philosophy)
  • Aesthetics (Beauty philosophy)
  • Ethics (moral philosophy)
  • Philosophy of law
  • Education philosophy (Pedagogy)
  • Philosophy of science
  • Metaphysics (Beyond physics)
  • Ontology (Being philosophy)
  • Political philosophy
  • Theology (Philosophy of Religion)
  • Mental philosophy
  • Other uses of the word
  • The following can be shown concerning the meanings of the word “philosophy” other than the first meaning:
  • It is also used in the sense of a philosophy, a philosophy school, an age teaching. Ex: Aristotle philosophy
  • It is used to mean the whole of the principles that form the basis of a science or a field of knowledge. Ex: Mathematical philosophy
  • A tragic philosophical approach may mean looking at an intellectual distance rather than an emotional reaction. This definition stems from a sample of Socrates. Before Socrates drinks his whitening poison, he quietly discusses the nature of his soul with his followers.
  • It is also used as knowledge acquired through the use of people or as a method or principle behind a person’s life vision or access to something. It is also called the world view at the same time.
  • It means thinking abstractly in a matter. Eg: “After long philosophies, he tells me that he loves Mediha very much.” H.E. Adivar
  • Relation of Philosophy to other fields
  • Science and Philosophy
  • Science and Philosophy is the product of human mind
  • Both sciences work to explain the universe.
  • Philosophy is the way it works, Science explores what is there.
  • Philosophy uses fictional and coherent explanations, while Science uses experimentation and observation.
  • There is no progress in philosophy, Science is not static.
  • Philosophy and Religion
  • Philosophy and Religion try to explain the human being and the universe.
  • Philosophy is criticized and doubtful, and religion does not include criticism and suspicion.
  • Philosophy and Art
  • Philosophy and Art are the subjects.
  • Both branches are based on criticism.
  • Both are based on creative intelligence.
  • Both branches try to explain the human and the universe.
  • While philosophy is looking for truth, Art is a beautiful call.
  • While philosophy is based on reason, Art is based on emotions.
Philosophy
Author: wik Date: 5:08 am
Philosophy and Religion

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