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Petroleum

  • What is Petroleum? Information about petroleum, naphtha
  • Petroleum, naphtha or ground oil; It is composed of hydrocarbons, more dense than water, dark colored, untreated, has its own odor, is natural flammable mineral oil extracted from underground. It is made up of the words “petra” meaning “stone” in Latin and “oleum” meaning oil (Petra oleum = Petrol).
  • In many cultures, petroleum is known as a specific fuel (gasoline, kerosene, diesel engine, engine oil, fuel oil), but in fact oil wax means raw crude oil that is in its natural state and extracted from underground.

 

  • Petroleum comes from a mixture of hydrocarbons, and there is always no fixed chemical composition. Crude oil, which is a natural fuel, shows compositions that vary according to the countries in which they are located. For example; The petroleum extracted in the United States, especially in the Pennsylvania region, is generally of the hydrocarbon class, the Russian petroleum, the odoriferous naphthene class compounds; Romanian petroleum contains a mixture of these two.

 

  • The specific weights of the various types of petroleum are 0.80-0.96; The extinguishing points are 15-120 ° C and the average heating powers are 10,500 kcal / kg. The average elemental composition is; Carbon 84%, hydrogen 12%, oxygen 1% and very low sulfur. In Texas and California oil, sulfur is more than the others.

 

  • There are many types of petroleum in different chemical compositions that are formed by hydrocarbons with different chemical contents (eg paraffin-based oil, asphalt-based oil).

 

  • Hundreds of millions of years ago, animal and plant residents living in the seas or dragged by the waters into the sea brought in an anaerobic environment, under the necessary conditions (with the effect of heat pressure and microorganisms), a kind of kerogen like crude oil. The kerosene gradually changed during its migration to the upstream stratum and brought crude oil to the waterfall. So, no field crude oil does exactly match the crude oil of another field; There are certainly a few differences. Even this situation is often seen, even in the same oil field.

 

  • Venezuelan politician Juan Pablo Pérez, the founder of OPEC, foresaw the oil as the mess of the devil because of its negative effects on nature and world politics, and predicted that humankind would cause future destruction.

 

  • Historical
  • Early period
  • Today, oil, which is very important in economy, politics and technology, has been used since ancient times in any form. The increase in the emphasis has been driven by the discovery of internal combustion engines, the increase in civil aviation and the importance of petroleum in Organic Chemistry, and in particular in the production of plastics, artificial fertilizers, solvents, adhesives and insect poisons.

 

  • Oil well
  • While extracting crude oil from the oil well.

 

  • According to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in Babylon before 4000 years, on the walls of the Tower. There were pitch resources in Zacynthus near Ardenic near Babylon. On the shores of the Issus River from the branches of the Euphrates, there were plenty of pitches. According to ancient Iranian tablets, Iranian civilization gradually used oil in the fields of health and illumination. In MS 347, oil was produced from bamboo-coated shafts in China. Early British researchers who went to Myanmar noted that it was an advanced oil production industry in Yenangyaung, and that in 1795 hundreds of oil wells were produced by hand. The mythological origin of the oil fields in Yenangyaung and the monopolization of these lands by 24 families indicate that they are used for a long time.

 

  • Pechelbronn (Pitch Fountain) is the name of the place where petroleum was first used and used in Europe. Erdpechquelle, which has been mixed with water, has been used since 1498 for health and so on. In addition, since the 18th century oil sands have been produced.

 

 

 

  • Natural asphalt / bitumen in Wietze in Lower Saxony was found in the 18th century.

 

  • The coal industry in Pechelbronn and Wietze dominated Petroleum technology.

 

  • Chemical formation
  • Petroleum consists of the remains of plants and animals in the sea that rot. After these residues decayed for millions of years in the sea bed, only the oily matter remains. The oily materials that are under the mud and large rock layers also turn into oil and gaza.
  • The chemical structure of petroleum consists of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. These chains are separated by means of distillation in petroleum treatment process and products like gasoline, jet fuel, kerosen are obtained.

 

  • The general notion of these alkanes is in the form of CnH2n + 2. For example, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, which is commonly found in petrol, is in the form of C8H18, and the oxygen-to-oxygen reaction is as follows:
  • C8H18  + 12.5 O2  → 8 CO2  + 9H2O + heat
  • The combustion of petrol or gasoline leads to the emission of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and / or nitric acid.
  • C8H18 + 12.5O2 + N2 → 6CO2 + 2CO + 2NO + 9H2O + heat
  • In the environment of high temperature and / or pressure, the oil forms as a result of the reactions. For example, the carcinogen can be divided into hydrocarbons of different lengths:
  • CH1.45  + heat → .663CH1.6 + .076CH2 + .04CH2.6  + .006CH4  + .012CH2.6  + .018CH4.0  + .185CH.25

 

  • Octane molecule 3D model
  • Octane is a hydrocarbons in oil. The lines are covalent bonds, black spheres carbon and white spheres hydrogens.

 

  • Petroleum industry
  • The petroleum industry and petroleum products market (oil tankers and generally pipelines) include transportation, exploration, extraction, refining and global processes. The largest volume products in the sector are fuel oil and benzene. Petroleum is also raw material for many chemical products such as drugs, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides and plastics.

 

  • Petroleum is very important for many industries, and industrialized civilizations know that it is important to them, and for this reason it is important for many countries. Petroleum consumption in the world is approximately 30 billion per year and top petroleum consumers are largely developed countries. While the United States consumed 24% of the oil consumed in 2004, this rate dropped to 21% in 2007.

 

  • In the US, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon and Washington state, the Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA) is responsible for refinery distribution, production, transportation and oil marketing. This profit-free trading institution, founded in 1907, is the oldest petroleum trade union in the United States.

 

  • You can access the World’s Oil (Petroleum) Reserves from the bottom of the page.
Petroleum
Author: wik Date: 12:06 am
Geography

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