Oceania, the continent consisting of Australians scattered around the Pacific Ocean and Australia. South and southeast of Asia, north of Antarctica, and between the Great Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Unlike other parts of the world that are continents, it is the ocean that provides integrity and gives its name to this piece. Its surface area is 8,970,000 km2 and the population is 35,669,267.
Not all of the islands in the Pacific Ocean are connected to Oceania. The archipelago, which is close to Asia and America, is part of these continents. The islands with American borders, the Aleut Islands and the Japanese archipelago especially in the Far East, Indonesia and the Philippines do not participate in Oceania. Malaysian archipelago is sometimes considered to be connected to Oceania, but it is closer to Southeast Asia in terms of peoples, civilizations and all its activities.
Portions of Oceania
Everyone knows that Okayanusyan is a KIT, and sometimes it can be confused as a country. Oceania is divided into four parts. Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia. Australia, a true small continent, situated between the Great Ocean and the Indian Ocean, in the size of three quarters of Europe (7,704,000 km2), is an Oceanic land, with the most populous regions facing the Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, history is about Europeans’ exploration and settlement of Oceania. Melanezia includes the islands east of Australia and Indonesia. This island is usually included in New Guinea. Polynesia covers the archipelago of New Zealand and the Great Oceanic islands north and south of Ecuador. Micronesia includes the archipelago in northern Malaysia. The islands of various archipelagoes generally extend from northwest to southeast and are often arranged in arcs.
Oceania Island types
Outside Australia, the islands of Oceania are the three main species.
1. Some of New Zealand, New Guinea and Melanesia have taken their mountainous surface forms and their present forms as a result of soil movements. Curls and breaks are usually very new, and earthquakes often occur in these islands, erupting volcanoes.
2. Most of the Polynesian, Melanese and Micronesian archipelago are the result of volcanic flows over a submarine base that is far from the surface. Some still active volcanoes are very high. In the Hawaiian archipelago this height is 2,400 m.
3. Most of the islands are surrounded by coral reefs since they are located in the volcano area. For example, the Great Set in the north-east of Australia. But in New Zealand there are no coral reefs in the south of Australia and some of the archipelago. For example, marine islands. The submarine shallows have been replaced by a base for some coral formations, and some archipelagoes are made entirely of atolls. For example, Tuamotu, Gilbert et al.
Climate and vegetation in Oceania
Almost all of the Oceania islands are in the tropical region. Temperate climates occur in the New Zealand archipelago, in Tasmania, and in the southern and south-western regions of Australia in the ocean or mediterranean climate. In other parts the temperature is higher every month of the year. However, the climate of many islands softens the land and sea breezes that spiral from east to west. The island’s open alpine slopes receive more precipitation from the coral slopes, which are winds, and flat coral islands. In some of the islands of Melanesia, there is an equatorial climate that is endowed with power. New Guinea, Salomon Islands and the New Hebrides Islands. This disease is not found in other islands in the Pacific Ocean.
Indigenous peoples of Oceania
The western peoples of all the archipelago of the Great Ocean have settled for centuries on their daring sea voyages. For example, Melanesians, Polynesias. The indigenous people of Oceania are calculated as 3.100.000 people (2.500.000 in Malineesia). The population of primitive indigenous peoples in Australia is low (50,000 people) and scattered. In all the other islands, the population of indigenous peoples, which have declined as a result of outbreaks and the deterioration of traditional life at the end of the 19th century, is now declining. This renewal is especially attractive in New Zealand Maori (130,000 people). It also has a mild dessert.
The Commonwealth, France and the United States are the three major states of Oceania. Europeans are not content to control the various parts of Oceania politically, placing the climate on favorable grounds. For example, New Zealand, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Hawaii. Among the other islands among the wineries, especially in the coconut, the majority of the archipelago is the main source of income. Some mineral deposits are very important. In New Caledonia, for example, nickel, phosphates, etc.
There has never been a major settlement in Oceania. The settlement in ancient times is the result of small groups that constantly converge and separate, not at the migration waves but at short distances. The Papies and Piglets, believed to be the first people of the continent, settled in New Guinea, the Salomon Islands and the New Hebrides Islands. Some of these peoples, who have gone through agriculture, have been troubled by fishing and shipping. The task of the leaders was limited in this society where the secret societies that set numerous prohibitions dominated.
Then the Tasmanians invaded Australia before being repelled by the primitive peoples of Australia. The rest of the Tasmanians were just hunting and reclamation.
Australian residents also had no other means of subsistence, but their techniques were better developed. Subsequent Melanesians move to New Caledonia, Fiji Islands and Micronesia after they have settled in the Salomon Islands to New Guinea and part of the New Hebrides Islands. Their civilization seemed to be closely related to Papular civilization.
The Melanesians settled in the Fiji Islands and New Caledonia when the Polynesia arrived.
The Polynesia, believed to be Malaysia-backed, were scattered all over the Pacific Ocean because they suddenly proliferated or because of civil wars.
After taking over Micronesia, he settled in Hawaii, the Society, Samoa and Tanga Islands, Easter Island and New Zealand in the 14th century.
New Hebrides Islands and New Caledonia with the Melanesian mixed. The polynesia’s leading societies based on a solid hierarchy were ruled by inheritors through inheritance since ancient times.
Polynesia with fisheries and agriculture, such as the sculptures and terraces on Easter Island, were very successful.