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  • What is the Mountain? Characteristics of mountains, Mountain varieties, Mountains higher than 8,000 meters:
  • The mountain is the name given to land masses which are higher than the terrestrial areas around it. The term “mountainous” is used to describe areas associated with mountains and covered areas.
  • There are many mountains in the world and their origin is different. While some mountains are formed by the compression of the earth, some mountains come out to the surface of lava and freeze. The source of the lava of the volcanoes is a very warm mass called magma.


  • 54% of Asia, 36% of North America, 25% of Europe, 22% of South America, 17% of Australia and 3% of Africa It is covered with mountains. 24% of the Earth’s terrestrial mass is entirely mountainous. 10% of people live in mountainous regions. Most of the world’s rivers are fed by mountainous resources and are dependent on mountains for more water than half of mankind.


    K2, Himalayas

    K2, Himalayas

  • All the mountains are not only on Earth. Other planets also have mountains. An example of this is Olympia Mons (25 km) on Mars, the highest mountain of the Solar System, which covers Mount Gila (3 km) in Venus and close to half of Turkey. Outside of them there are mountains of 8 km on the Moon and 18 km on Mars, but the height of these mountains is measured from the surface of the planet and the mountains on Mars are extinct volcanoes. The highest peak in the Himalayan Mountains, the world’s tallest mountains, is Everest Hill, 8,850 meters high.


  • Definitions
  • Some sources describe the mountain as a topographic projection over a certain height, which is a pointed hill that multiplies the sky; For example, according to the Britannica Student Encyclopedia; “Generally rise above 610 meters (2,000 feet)”. On the other hand, the Encyclopaedia Britannica expresses the concept only as “geologically inaudible term” without limiting the height.


  • Any side of the mountain is called a slope.
  • In the United Kingdom
  • In the United Kingdom, the ministry of environment defines all the territories over 600 metric units. This measurement corresponds approximately to 2,000 ft (610 m). The law of Scotland 2003 does not look like this definition, and the mountain definition is more subjective; Using them for elevations above 9,144 meters (30,000 ft), rank them as “Munro” s. In the United Kingdom, the definition of hill is widely used for all hills and mountains, not for its height.


  • In the United States
  • In the United States, the Committee of Geographic Names lists hundreds of land areas below 304.7 meters (1,000 feet) (some are as small as 100 feet) with the name “mountain“. This is also true for the western coast where the low elevations dominate all over the United States, even the Cascade Range. However, the delegation has not yet attempted to distinguish mountains, hills and other heights and simply classifies them as “summit“, without looking at how they are named or elevated. The delegation, however, lists and classifies low mountain ranges as “mountain”, such as the Tom Range (highest mountain 366 m).


  • Height
  • The height of a mountain is determined by its height above sea level. The average is 4 km while the Himalayas are 5 km above sea level. The highest mountain is Mount Everest with a height of 8,848 meters in the Himalayas.


    The world's highest peak, Mount Everest

    The world’s highest peak, Mount Everest

  • Other definitions of height may also be available. The farthest peak from the center of the Earth is the Chimborazo volcano in Ecuador. This peak in the Andler at an altitude of 6,267 meters above sea level is not regarded as “the highest” because Chimborazo is very close to Ecuador and the Earth is bloated; The Chimborazo is 2,150 meters, farther from the center of the world than Everest. The highest summit is Mauna Kea in Hawaii, 10,200 meters above the Pacific Ocean where the summit base is located.


  • Today Everest is the highest mountain in the world, but in the past higher mountains were found. During the Pre-Cambrian time, the Canadian Shield, which now curls and shrinks, is one of the highest mountains with 12,000 meters. This mountain has risen as a result of the collision of tectonic strata, such as the Himalaya and the Rocky Mountains.


  • Mount Olympus, an ancient volcano in Mars, is the highest known mountain in the Solar System, 26 km (Fraknoi et al., 2004).


  • Volcanoes are known to be erupted on other planets in our Solar System, and they are constantly erupting throughout our lives (for example in Venus), with some of these mountains spewing ice instead of lava. A few years ago, Hale telescope recorded the eruption of a volcano on a satellite in our Solar System for the first time.


  • The mountains are formed in two forms:
  • Broken mountains: If the sediments that accumulate in Jeosenkliners are so hard that they can not be twisted, these mountains will turn into fragile mountains. The ascending parts of these mountains are called Graben. These broken mountains form the fault line.
  • The world’s longest fault line starts from Lake Victoria in East Africa and ends north of Lake Van.
  • Folding mountains: The ground is called the very large hollows in the shell. These depressions are caused by rivers, winds, glaciers, sediments that accumulate, subterranean pressures under the sliding of the continents, soft layers swell up and mountains form. The rising parts of these mountains are anticlinal, and the parts in the pit are called synclinal.


  • Features
  • The high mountains, and the mountains near the poles of the Earth, coexist with the colder layers of the atmosphere. For this reason, they are often exposed to frost and erosion caused by frost.


  • They have very different climatic conditions ranging from long mountain bases to hill tops and have different habitats at different heights. The fauna and flora found in these zones are likely to be isolated from the above and under the following conditions and not to receive members from these zones. These isolated ecological systems are known as the sky island and / or microclimate.






  • The tree forests are unique ecosystem forests, moistened with trees, located on one side of the mountain. Very long mountains can be covered with ice or snow.


  • The mountains are colder than the downsides, because the sun warms the Earth up from the ground. Also, in high sections, the air can not keep enough heat because the air is sparse. The radiation of the sun passes through the atmosphere and descends and absorbs the earth’s heat.


  • The lower altitude air is usually warmer. The rising air in the mountain becomes difficult and cold as a result. Air temperature normally falls 1 to 2 degrees C every 300 meters.


  • Mountains are generally less preferred than flatlands as human habitats, where the weather is harder and agricultural areas are less. At very large heights there is less oxygen in the air and less protection against UV radiation.


  • Acute Mountain Disease, which causes hypoxia (low oxygen levels), affects half of people who live in lower quarters and spend several hours more than 3,500 meters.


  • Some of the mountains and mountain ranges scattered around the world can be used in their natural state and for cutting trees, mining, grazing, as well as for a small part of them and some for recreation.


  • Some of the mountains are only wooded, and some have spectacular views worth seeing. From mountain to mountain can be reached and reached the summit; As well as factors such as altitude, steepness, flatness, terrain, air and road conditions are factors affecting these transitions, vehicles made for easier transportation such as cable cars can also be found in the mountains.


  • Recreational activities such as mountaineering, hiking, rock climbing, ice climbing, downhill hiking and snow surfing are the activities that make the mountains fun. Mountains such as slopes down the hill, especially on plain, increase entertainment. However, such efforts always carry risks.


  • Mountain range
  • Mountains can be characterized in several ways. Some of the mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by eruption history and lava type. Other mountains can be shaped by icing and can be described by icing. However, they can be exemplified by faults and folds in the Earth’s crust, or continental collisions of tectonic strata (eg the Himalayas).


  • The shape and settlement of the land from the beginning also define the mountains and mountainous structures. As a result, some mountains may be characterized by the type of rocks that make up their components. In general we can divide the mountains into two groups:


  • Tectonic mountains
  • Volcanic mountains
  • Or mountains can be grouped as follows:
  • Single mountains
  • Mountain rage


  • Geology
  • Mountains are usually formed by movements of lithospheric beds, orogenic or epirogenic movements. The compressive forces, the isostatic elevation and the intercalation of the volcanic rocks compress upwardly to be higher than the surrounding rock surfaces. According to the characteristic of the ascension, a peak, mountain or another elevation occurs.


  • 14 mountains of the world higher than 8,000 meters
No. Mount Name



Range Countries
1 Mount Everest 8.848 Himalayas China, Nepal
2 K2 8.611 Karakorum China, Pakistan
3 Kanchenjunga 8.586 Himalayas Nepal, India
4 Lhotse 8.516 Himalayas China, Nepal
5 Makalu 8.485 Himalayas China, Nepal
6 Cho Oyo – Zhuoaoyou 8.188 Himalayas China, Nepal
7 Dhaulagiri 8.167 Himalayas Nepal
8 Manaslu 8.163 Himalayas Nepal
9 Nanga Parbat 8.125 Himalayas Pakistan
10 Annapurna I 8.091 Himalayas Nepal
11 Gasherbrum I (Hidden Peak) 8.080 Karakorum China, Pakistan
12 Broad Peak 8.051 Karakorum China, Pakistan
13 Gasherbrum II 8.034 Karakorum China, Pakistan
14 Shishapangma 8.027 Himalayas China
Author: wik Date: 7:47 pm

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