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Martin Luther


  • Martin Luther’s Life
  • Born in Eisleben, Germany, Martin Luther studied at Erfurt University. A return visit to his family decided to become a monk when he encountered a lightning strike on the way to Erfurt. At the age of 21, he entered a monastery connected to the order of St. Augustine and began his theology education and became a priest the same year. The following year he started to teach at Wittenberg University by completing his doctorate. In those days, Johann Tetzel, a Dominican gentleman commissioned by Rome, was selling endulence around Wittenberg.


  • Luther wrote a criticism against this practice, which he has questioned since the days of the monastery. This 95-page text, titled “Theses about the Force of the Endangered” was sent to the bishops on October 31, 1517, and at the same time, with a letter, the sermons of the endulence were asked to be placed on a theologically sound level. It is not proven that Martin Luther’s thesis spread on the way to the door of the Wittenberg Palace Church, a place where the university could be considered a bulletin board, but spreading years later. As a result, these theses spread in Germany and in neighboring countries at a speed that Luther himself had not foreseen, and there was not a decline in endemic sales, which was the beginning of the whole reform movement.


  • In 1518, a papal case against Luther’s ideas was opened in Rome. In this inquisition, Luther was tried in absentia. Although the Pope was excommunicated, he was anxious among the public. Emperor Maximillian proclaimed him heretical; Luther was called to Rome to answer the charges. But instead of going to Rome, he preferred to testify to Cardinal Cajetan in Augsburg. When Cajetan asked him to give up his ideas and attacks on the Church, Luther turned to Wittenberg. Here the Sacred Roman Duke of Saxony is the emperor of the Germanic Empire. Frederick took him under his protection. Pope X. Leo, III. Although Frederick asked Luther to be sent to exile, the Duke did not obey this order. In the meantime, Luther, who gave up some of his views and even sent an apology letter to the Pope, joined a memoir about the endangement with Ingolstadt University rector Johann Eck.






  • On June 15, 1520, Pope X. Leo excommunicated Luther in a statement. In October, the papal report was handed over to Luther, but the students at Erfurt University broke it and threw it into the water. University officials did not intervene in this. Then Luther published perhaps the most famous book, “Von der Freiheit des Christenmenschen“, with an open letter directed to Pope X Leo. Reflecting the theological and ideological foundations of his thought, this small work has the concept of “Freiheit” (freedom).


  • In 1521 Luther was summoned by Emperor V. Karl to testify to the Worms Council. On the way he gave sermons in Erfurt, Eisenach, Gotha and Frankfurt and entered the Worms with a victorious commander in a great crowded encounters. He wanted to give up his ideas of the books he wrote here. Luther said: “I can not accept the authority of the popes and councils unless I am persuaded by Scripture and reason, for they are contradictory among themselves, and my conscience is solely based on God’s word, for this reason I am not returning from any of my views because they deny that they write despite their conscience It will not be right and reliable.


  • The Worms Board disbanded without a result. Luther began to translate the Bible into German in Wartburg, where he also settled. Luther was also changing in Wittenberg when he was in Wartburg. The monks who rejected the special ritual requests abandoned the Augustinian order. The caretaker of the Castle Church married; Students destroyed the present at the Franciscan monastery; The rites began to be made in German and wine was presented to the congregation who came to church for the first time. The prohibitions on Luther were abolished and he began to preach to the church by returning to Wittenberg. The Nürnberg Board continued to write, though Luther had banned sermons outside the Catholic doctrine, requesting that he no longer publish books; Even poets and musicians who want to contribute to the local language to be used in rituals.


  • 1524 is a year of confusion in Germany. The villagers were uprooted by Luther to improve his economic conditions in the direction of the teachings. Among their leaders were Thomas Müntzer, a theologian trained at Wittenberg. Luther wrote a book against the attacks of the peasantry and the rebellion ended with the killing of some 50,000 peasants in a clash in Frankenhausen, some of the Protestant priests were executed by Catholic princes and believed that the peasant Luther had deceived them.
Martin Luther
Author: wik Date: 2:08 am
History, Philosophy and Religion

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