Logic

  • What does logic mean?
  • Logic or discipline is the discipline that sees the structure of knowledge and distinguishes between reasoning and truth. Logic is the tool of right thinking. Priority was a philosophy and later became a specialty in its own right. Logic has also become part of Mathematics and Computer Science. It was founded by Aristotle as a discipline. It was categorized in two parts by Farabi, who was influenced by Aristotle. (Thought and conclusion) Ibn Sina (Avicenna) developed the relation between temporality and inclusion. Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein made important contributions in contemporary times.

 

  • Logic Concepts
  • To give a simple example: If all people are mammals, and Aristotle is human, Aristotle is also a mammal.

 

  • Logic is a philosophical discipline that examines the rules of right thinking. In this sense, logic examines the correctness of the inner integrity of ideas and concepts that express the truth of knowledge, not the truth of knowledge. So it may be wrong in the sense of knowledge and science that is reasonably true. The forms of reasoning are methods of reasoning.

 

  • From a general preamble to a special note or a token is a complete departure:
  • Deduction,
  • All the mammals are very cellulite,
  • A human is a mammal,
  • Then man is very cellulite.
  • Generation from a private precursor is induction. (Induction)
  • The Nokia mobile phone makes cancer,
  • The Samsung mobile phone makes cancer,
  • The Motorola phone makes cancer,
  • Then all the cell phones make cancer.
  • Analogy is analogous. In this, a kind of “splash” is applied by analogy in defining objects with the same qualities.
  • America and Russia are at the same latitude,
  • Summer is hot in America,
  • Summer is hot in Russia too.

 

  • Logic principles
  • Identity
  • The logic principle is found in the statement “What is odor?” With a reasoning, every concept and proposition must be in the same manpower as itself.

 

  • Contradiction
  • It is a rule that states that something can not be both itself and anyone else. Concepts or propositions like the same identity principle do not contradict themselves.

 

 

 

  • The impossibility of the third state
  • This principle means that a proposition is either right or wrong. According to this conclusion, a proposition can not be both true and false.

 

  • The notion of set in basic mathematics opens up these principles to a certain degree of debate. Because the quality of an object can belong to different objects. This is also an analogy. A human is a living thing, but it also consists of things that are not alive. In that case, man is both alive and not alive. In these principles, the problem has led to the development of highly valuable logic instead of two valuable rationales. It has led to the addition of the definition of “uncertain” instead of correct and incorrect. According to this principle, another judgment is necessary for the correctness of every punishment. Unless there is a sufficient cause, it is impossible to speak of the correctness of a punishment. Looking at all the principles, it can be seen that they are inadequate in the modern language. This could lead us to new rules that helped us form the quantum physics. In a quantum experiment, a cat can be both dead and alive. So he is both the other.

 

  • History of logic
  • Conceptualization techniques in Indian and Chinese philosophies were available in Mesopotamia and Egypt using measurement, counting and classification methods. Some mathematical and logic systems have not been established, although some arithmetic operations have been developed. For this reason, the history of logic is usually initiated from Greece and Asia Minor, where the concept of logos emerges. Logos: a central concept that includes many meanings such as speech, law, reason, reason principle, divine reason, and is shaped in Greek philosophers by being influenced by eastern philosophy. Herakleitos first mentioned it. The period between Thales and Plato was also discussed by other philosophers. Aristotle made the first holistic thinking and research on the logic of the meaning we know today. He wrote six books on logic and these books were collected under the title Organon after he was killed. These include Categorizations, Propositions, First Analyticals, Second Analitics, Topiks, Sophisticated Evidences, followed by Isagogy of Poetics, Rhetoric, and Porgyris. The organon was simplified by Porfiryos, M.S. In 6, it was translated into Latin by Boetyus. Throughout the Middle Ages, Scholastic thought, led by Aristotle, maintained its dominance.

 

  • F. Bacon showed that the experimental method involving induction is valid. Thinkers like Descartes and Ramus put the scientific method in the foreground in the New Age.

 

  • The first systematic study on symbolic logic was made by Leibniz. De Morgan has worked on a logic that can be expressed with symbols. While mathematicians such as G. Boole worked on the mathematization of logic, G. Frege established today’s proposals and quantification logic. One of the most important classics of symbolic logic is the book of the Principles of Mathematics written by B. Russell and N. Whitehead. Today, the symbolic logic called logistics is based largely on this book. Lukasiewic has developed a three-valued logic system, Reicheinbach has established a logic system of infinite accuracy with the name of probability logic.
Logic
Author: wik Date: 9:14 pm
Philosophy and Religion, Science and Mathematics

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