Literature or writing; It is the art of expressing the events, thoughts, emotions and dreams in aesthetic way through language. A more restrictive definition is that of literature; It is thought to be writings created as an art form. The reason for this is that, unlike daily use, literature is a language product. The words used in the Indo-European language family of literature are derived from Latin literatura / litteratu. Literatura / litteratura is derived from littera, which means Latin letter and handwriting.
Literature is not only a term used for written products, but also a range that actually includes oral products. In this way, literary literature which is not written and lives on folk narratives is called literary literature.
It can be classified on the basis of literature, fiction or real perception. Another criterion in the classification of literary works is the verse or prose of the present work. In addition to these basic criteria, literary works are collected at different times according to the forms of size. For example, a story, a novel, a short story or drama can be distinguished from each other by the relation of length shortness. In addition to this, it is observed that the aesthetics and genre-shape relation are taken into account in the classification of literature in the historical process.
Over time, the concept of literature has undergone a great transformation. For today, literature also includes non-written verbal forms of art. In recent years, as the virtual environment has become more and more widespread, e-media literature, a new branch of literature, has emerged.
The literary word comes from the Arabic word adabiyyāt أدبيات. The word comes from the root of Adb and
1. manners, decency, guest hospitality,
2. the plurals of the word adab which comes from the meaning of stories and observations about the lifestyle.
Literature does not have a common definition by literature. The definition of literature goes from the State of Plato’s work to the present day. Plato, the general meaning of literature as a reflection of life and this definition has preserved its day-to-day life. The French novelist Stendhal “A novel is a mirror that travels along the way,” Georgi Plekhanov said, “Literature and art are the same as life.” These descriptions M. Parkhomenko and A. Myasnikov “Art is often likened to the same, and the fallacy of this analogy has not escaped even in the eyes of nineteenth-century classics: the mirror does nothing but reflect the dull images of objects standing in front of it, Selects, resolves and reformats. ” .
Boris Suchkov synthesizes the two ideas. “The world drawn by art and literature is not a blind copy of reality, but it maintains the world’s color and smell in itself, for the simple reason that art has always dealt with the most essential aspects of nature and human life. It must be a declaration of every true work of art, which is a basic condition and a vital element of the existence of an artwork, which can only subordinate to the great discipline of reality and can not help it. “
Terry Eagleton, an English literary critic, said: “There can be no literary definition in the sense of artifacts that are solid and unchangeable values and share some common characteristics.”
It has been a debate in ancient Greece that the borders of literature are either a production designed according to pre-determined forms and rules, or an original creation created in the light of unconscious and past experiences during production that can not be designed from the beginning. So there are two main views that question the production of literary text
The first representative was Aristotle, and in the study of the famous poet named Poetika, while studying the tragedy in the foreground, he brought the fiction to the forefront and put the artistic expression on the second plan.
MS. In the 1 st century, the ancient Roman thinker Longinus rejected the fictitious conception, arguing that a work by Fairy Hypsous (On Greatness) could be measured by the amount of enthusiasm within his artistic value. From the 20th century onwards, works were produced in which both concepts are shared. The promise of James Joyce’s novel, Ulysses, draws attention both as a flawless fiction and as a revolutionary work of intense use of expression
Reality in literature
In some literary works, reality is fiction as reality. The artist reveals the artifacts and blends them with the events or ideas inspired by real life art. As a result, the artifacts bear traces of both the real life and the artist’s emotions, thoughts and dreams.