Linguistics

  • What does linguistics mean?
  • Linguistics; The language examines the transmission of words and the linguistic enforcement power in communication on the basis of the outline of structural, semantic and communication in various aspects such as Linguistics, syntax, phonetics, phonology, morphology ..

 

  • General (or theoretical) language studies the structures of language (linguistic knowledge) and meanings (semantics). An examination of linguistic knowledge encompasses form knowledge (the formation and exchange of words) and the syntax (the rules for combining words to form phrases or sentences). The sound knowledge, which is the system used to express by means of the bilingual sounds, is also a part of this field.

 

  • Language comprehension compares languages ​​(comparative Linguistics) to find general language characteristics and describe their development and origins (research on the history of languages). Sound science, as a branch of language science, examines the production, movement and perception of sounds. It is the only point that science can associate physics with language science and natural science.

 

  • Applied language linguistics is applied in areas such as linguistic theories, foreign language teaching, speech therapy, translation and speech disorders.

 

  • Linguistics as a science fiction
  • In addition to the research areas listed below, general language proficiency also deals with topics that concern him / her.
  • Language history
  • Method theories
  • Specific auxiliary tools, terminology and other dictionaries or source works
  • Language model in general linguistics
  • Dual language model

 

  • The Genoese linguist and indicative scientist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) has an opinion that affects the fundamental and long-lasting knowledge of the notion of “language“. The reason for this is the distinction that the language as a formal structure – Saussure calls it Langue (structure / system) – and between the language used and what it calls Parole. Langue is a theoretical, negotiated system that exists at the heart of a linguistic speaker. Parole is a word that has been updated by speakers at special times. Besides, linguistic objects can gain different meaning according to each usage situation. For this reason, the parole (word) is divided into linguistic and Langue is divided into linguistic form.

 

  • De Saussure is not the first person to bring up the idea of ​​”versatility” on the ground. Previously, Hermann Paul likewise expressed this in his “The History of Language Principles” book. In his book, Paul mentions the meaning of a sheen from the “normal meaning”, that is, from the usual, self-meaning to a causal (rare) meaning, ie, the probabilities of each language.

 

  • Both historian and linguist Paul, and structuralist Saussure have found that causal, in other words, situationally emerging language affects the normal meaning, namely the theoretical language system of Langue, so that changes can take place, which also clarifies language changes.

 

  • This bilingual view of language has been put forward in the model of producer Linguistics, and especially in the transformational Linguistics established by Noam Chomsky (1928). The difference of Chomsky’s model is that it does not take the individual words like Paul’s or the linguistic system like Saussure’s. Chomsky is more concerned with biological causes and distinguishes Competenz (language ability) and Performanz (language acquisition).

 

  • Language competence (Competenz) is a skill acquired during the acquisition of the mother tongue in order to have a special language system. Biological factors determine the acquisition of these abilities. During the linguistic development of young children, basic, linguistic parameters are born which are divided according to each language. The linguistic competence of a speaker is an ideal language system that a person can possess after language acquisition.

 

  • Language acquisition describes the concrete use of the language full of mistakes while in the process of speaking. Thus it is almost identical to Saussure’s concept of Parole.

 

  • Langue is seen as a fixed model and rule system. Competenz (language ability) is understood as a dynamic model because it has a limited number of rules and allows for the formation of unlimited language expressions with linguistic evidence. In this way, Kompetenz and Langue are separated but in practice all word combinations in the direction of a rule are not expressed equally, whereas certain words are also met with other words at the same time.

 

  • Chomsky; He changed it to a model he created in 1965 about 20 years later. The language spoken for errors found on the table is not suitable for the examination of biological linguistic structures. Depending on this situation, Chomsky Kompetenz (language proficiency) sees it as a mental and (largely unconsciously) constructed structure and speaks of I-language, ie, “inner syllable“. This creates E-language, or formal language, that includes situations that do not fall within the I-language boundaries. In other words, it is not just the actual conversation that takes place, but the detailed features of a language that is consensual within a group of speakers (hence, for example, a language is a part of a certain dialect of Kompetenz or of Langue , But rather as part of the E-tongue overhead). A natural language is not just about the sub-system that develops for biological reasons. On the contrary, it is a system that shows variable language habits that are not dependent on innate language characteristics.

 

  • There are few studies in general linguistics that will exceed this separate model of language system and language use, example and practice. On the whole, linguistic knowledge deals with this topic. It searches for the structural features (syntactic, lexical, etc.) and subsystems (such as Austrian or Swiss German) of a language system (such as German, English) with the help of a whole language representation of the language used for the whole language.

 

  • At the same time, the grammatical consciousness of language entangles language materials such as the characteristics of certain groups of texts (such as the language of a particular social group, political and newspaper texts), the characteristics of language in use and the reasons for language use. Observations on early childhood language acquisition that provide important contributions to research on innate Linguistics; The child being enrolled is through language material and databases.

 

  • Linguistic structure of language
  • From a structural point of view – the state of language studies done so far – the language is analyzed and the elemental parts are separated. The functions of these parts and the type of item repairs are investigated.
  • The normal state of the tongue is regarded as the voice language which is regarded as a sequence of the tongue sounds. Each sound tongue, which is made up of separate tongues, forms the sound element and the syllable, which are functioning goggles in the plane of the sound cognition. In the upper plane (in the form information) they form units of form and words. These, too, are understood as – in a higher plane – the basic unit of a linguistic expression and a sentence formed according to certain syntactic rules.
  • The contents of a whole can be determined from different angles. Comprehensive word combinations that may be more or less in the sentence, as well as the part sentences (basic sentence, second, and so on), can also be specified as sentence building units (or even sequences). The concept of “sentence” has been redefined along with the transformational Linguistics.

 

  • Thus, “root” s are composed of certain word types such as a noun or a verb, and are connected to other words (ie connected words). These kinds of comparisons can usually be seen in a sentence by changing it entirely. This also permits the identification of objects in the abstract structure, such as negative negatives.
  • Until the view that the shaping of the totals depends on the mutual interaction of a large number of subjects, The sentence was seen as the top level of linguistic analysis for many years. Text is created in the plane above the sentence. Texts can be configured in specific ways. Different parts are related to each other in different ways. Texts are typologically classified (text functions) and / or belong to certain text types (structured classification).
  • In the uppermost plane, a group consisting of many texts is thought of as a form of discourse that is related to a text and takes shape in the other text. The connotation and the very meaningful “discourse” which is also used in bounded sciences is defined in forms that do not fit in language art. Under the concept of discourse can be understood as a whole, including all of the texts produced in a group of speakers without speaking.

 

  • Tongue function
  • Language is seen as the most important and effective means of communication for people. Accordingly, there are many models based on each function of the language. One of these most radical models is Organon Models, which belongs to Karl Bühler. Noam Chomsky, who sees the language as a biological object in a skillful way, is the second plan of language communicative function, and is not the primary content of his research.

 

  • The place among the branches of science
  • Because of the interpretation of the concept of language in different forms and the examination of the very different aspects of language, it is not possible to belong to any discipline for language. Linguistic; The knowledge of the linguistic system, and most people see it as a subfield of indicator science or as the knowledge of the markers. That is why linguistic is included in the structural science or formal science group.
  • However, when the acquisition of personal language and the use of language are considered as a psychological or clinical situation, this sub-area of ​​linguistics can be counted in the natural science group. When language is examined as a social and cultural concept, it can be evaluated in the category of language culture or science. Language science also has subfields of social sciences such as language, politics, or community language.

 

  • Subdivision of language science
  • In addition to differences in the naming of scientific fields, linguistic science itself has problems in clearly distinguishing between sub-domains that limit each other. Such classification, which arises from the fact that all scientific fields are benefiting from each other in particular, is often controversial. Comprehension of language or historical language, general knowledge of language and practical language; Many researches; These three major linguistic specializations are either artificially or inappropriately limited in their present limitations.
  • There may be some different classifications of the area of ​​individual research areas. For this reason, for example, there is no general judgment that social linguistics is part of general linguistics or part of applied linguistics.
  • Philology (scriptural science), which seeks to separate languages ​​from the standpoint of both linguistic as well as literary and cultural aspects, is not regarded as a part of modern language science. On the contrary, philology is a unique science that examines the language and its historical development from written documents.

 

  • Research areas and sub-areas
  • Basically, linguistic and linguistic concepts are perceived as two equivalent concepts. But; This conceptual dilemma is caused by the understanding of this field under the name of linguistic and the use of the concept of Linguistics as a major social and cultural phenomenon, especially in terms of researching the theoretical foundations of natural language. According to this, there are different understandings about which field belongs to general linguistics or general linguistics.
  • The definition, functions and meanings of the parts of the language system (voices, words, different functional units), as well as their examples and possibilities of coming together (voice combinations, expressions, sentences, texts) are the subject of general linguistics. The expression of different linguistic models is also the task of the general linguistic. In this respect, they research the desired universal Linguistics; That is, a biological, determined, basic grammatical structure that is common to all languages ​​- has gained great importance. General linguistics and others are interested in expressing general language theories.

 

  • Theoretical areas
  • One of the main areas of the theory-oriented general linguistics (at least directly) is not interested in the diction and the singular diction that is really expressed. Thus, these subfields are entirely called theoretical linguistic.
  • The general linguistic has a limited definition and is counted among the basic sub-areas listed below. Therefore, theoretical linguistic and general linguistic concepts are held. However, this equivalent use can be misleading, depending on the understanding that practical and historical areas may also be included in general linguistics. These basic sub-areas are:
  • Linguistics: examines the structural patterns of linguistic structure, form, and certain rules. The following areas can be listed under this top concept.
  • In addition, many linguistic situations show the common area between these areas. For this reason, Morphonologie or Morphophonologie on one side and Morphosyntax on the other can be mentioned in the investigation of common facts.
  • Increasingly, cooperation in these fields is defined by a comprehensive theoretical view of linguistic knowledge, and “linguistic theory” is understood as a peculiar field.
  • Analysis of discourse: (written and oral) Analyzes the thematic relations of texts and relations of production and reception. Numerous social and non-language factors play a role in the practice and the language used in this area is examined.

 

  • General-comparative areas
  • Other linguistic areas of general linguistics can be included in the description of the structural definition of language as well as the definition of common non-linguistic general features of general linguistics.
  • Universal research; Most of them make experiments on universal linguistic research by comparing most of them in terms of sentence knowledge, form knowledge and sound knowledge, and by determining the common features of languages.
  • There is a strong link between universal research and language typology, differential comparative linguistics and field typology.

 

  • All these areas of interest in language comparisons are seen as complementary branches of general linguistics according to the views and orientations of the research institution (mostly the university institution) and are collected under the name of comparative linguistics with historical-comparative areas. Comparative language linguistics can be understood as an independent linguistic main discipline besides general linguistics. Furthermore, the definition of common linguistic features in these areas is not only theoretical; This definition is based on each existing language study. For this reason, these fields are not seen as areas of general linguistics.

 

  • Contents and research areas of applied linguistics
  • In addition to the use of applied language, the following topics are also covered by applied language knowledge (Linguistics).

 

  • Practice-based language theories
  • Description of each language (monolingual dictionary science, concurrently above all)
  • More linguistic comparison (comparative linguistics, bilingual lexicology, simultaneous)
  • Language teaching and language learning research (including language teaching and learning in foreign language courses, studies in language laboratories, didactics in mother tongue)
  • Expertise language research (terminology, understandability problems, science language, expert-amateur communication)
  • Translation knowledge (restriction of software, technical documentation)
  • Corporate communications
  • Defect / error analysis
  • Text-image relation
  • Short stripes – linguistics
  • Body language science
  • Sociodemic (social language)
  • Psychodynamics (psychology)
  • Pragmatics (language and behavior, language usage rules, speech action theory, theory of speech rules)
  • Budundil science
  • Computer literacy (artificial language system)
  • Historical linguistic knowledge (contemporaneous linguistic changes taking into account the current simultaneous linguistic status and influence factors)
  • Textual language science
  • Clinical language science
  • Judicial language
  • Judicial language
  • Relational linguistics (Linguistic structures and linguistic conclusions, as well as social and language policy conditions in language context).
  • Whole Linguistics
  • Descriptive linguistics (oriented to form a martial or non-normative description of meaning far away from the possible extent of language and language systems)
  • Neurodil science
  • Science of law
  • Cognitive language
  • Feminist language
  • Avrolinguistic is interested in European languages.
  • Interlinguistic, international communication and artificial languages.
  • Media Linguistics
  • Quantitative Linguistics
  • Ecological language science (examines the interaction between language and language use area)
  • Paleolinguistic examines the formation of the human language; Psychology and anthropology have many common points.

 

  • Important representatives of applied science
  • John Langshaw Austin and John Searle (language philosophy, word action theory)
  • Jerry Fodor (cognitive rating hypothesis for pathological language conception model)
  • Gottlob Frege (the first person to develop a formal language.)
  • Paul Grice (linguistic philosophy, theory of speech rules and semantic intuition)
  • Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm (pioneers of the German dictionary and founders of modern German dictionary science).
  • Samuel Johnson (compile the modern dictionary first.)
  • Raymond Kurzweil (the pioneer of computer literacy, computer-based language diagnostics and language composition)
  • George Lakoff, an important representative of cognitive linguistics.
  • William Labov (social linguist, language linguistic variations and linguistic variations)
  • Desmond Morris (semiotic triangle)
  • Charles S. Peirce (Symbolic Signs, Icon, Symbol Signals)
  • Edward Sapir (Founder of Anthropological Linguistics)
  • Mario Wandruszka (Multilingualism research)
  • Anna Wierzbicka (Natural hyponym semantics)
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein (Founder of the Analyzing Language Philosophy.)

 

  • Historical areas
  • Knowledge of historical language
  • There are some non-obvious limitations between general language linguistics and historical language linguistics. General Linguisticscan be understood as a field of expertise that describes the general principles, rules and legal status of the linguistic changes that occur over time. The fields which are generally regarded as historical linguistics can also be seen as areas of general linguistics.

 

  • At the beginning of these, researches on sound consonant, morphological information, sentence information studies, lexical semantic information researches in terms of dictionary and artsure (voice change, linguistic change, lexical and semantic change) are mentioned. And also the general principles of etymology researching word formation and word history, language formation and language development, language impairment and language death.

 

  • General Linguistics
  • General language linguistics is one of the main areas of linguistics. Applied Linguistics and historical Linguistics limit general linguistics. The boundaries between these two areas of expertise and general language arts are often drawn in different ways. The concept of general language knowledge(linguistics); Turkish language and literature, German language and literature, Latin languages ​​and literature, Slavic languages ​​and literature. Along with this comprehensive understanding, a large part of applied and historical linguistic fields can be understood in general language.

 

  • General language linguistics deals primarily with the human language as a natural system, basically not by individual language, but by the general characteristics and function of language. The general features of the use of language and the definition and explanations of the common language aspects of the general language are also included in the study of general linguistics. As a result, research on the biological basis of language biology and the use of language and language can be included in general linguistics.

 

  • The field of general linguistics deals primarily with basic research. There is a close link between other scientific disciplines where useful information is derived from other sciences. General language linguistics is also an integral part of cognitive science.

 

  • It deals with the general theories of language, also known as theoretical linguistic knowledge, scientific research of language as an abstract system and general theories on language, as well as the analysis of discourse in the subfields of applied linguistics such as language sociology or discourse analysis.

 

  • The basic subfields of language science are:
  • Speech Linguistics (Grammatical speech analysis, mutual speech research): examines the field of verbal communication that has never been changed.
  • Written language: searches the written language as a language system.
  • Vocabulary: A language searches for the structuring of the vocabulary and its representation in reason.
  • Morphology: The word structure and science that absorbs variable word forms such as name, adjective, and verb conjugation.
  • Phonetics (phonetic): The phonemes of the tongues examine the voices of the voice, such as voice presence, perception, and perception.
  • Sound science (phonology): examines sound systems on every level, such as sound synthesis and syllabic information.
  • Pragmatic: Through language, he investigates action-related actions such as speaking, speaking and verbal expression.
  • Semantics: Searches the meanings of sentences and words on a back.
  • Language philosophy: investigates the general function of language and basic language rules and the link between language, thought, imagination and reality.
  • Syntax: examines the forms and structures of the syllables.
  • Text language art: researches the structure, function and effect of text and text.
  • The following research areas can also be seen as independent branches:
  • linguistics: Researches language structure with the help of certain linguistics models.
  • Quantitative linguistic knowledge: In order to develop a linguistic theory, linguistic knowledge is studied which investigates the development of language laws on the basis of statistical research.

 

  • Other major research areas are:
  • Morphological sound science: examines word structure at the phonological level.
  • Morphologic syntax: deals with the influence of morphological processes on syntactic variants.
  • Carrying Science: Investigates language events that can not be separated into sub-units such as emphasis, intonation, speed of speech, and tone height. Science is generally not seen as an independent field; Sound knowledge, sound knowledge, and syntactic fields.

 

  • Some basic research questions
  • How is the language established?
  • What is the common form and function in all languages?
  • How to use the language
  • How does language form and when does it “die”?
  • How is the language acquired?

 

  • Complementary research
  • Not only is it a comparative language, it is also a field of general linguistics, with the help of its grammatical features, to conduct descriptive research of each language or group of languages. Also; The research areas listed below are also included in the field of general linguistics.

 

  • Modern Linguistic
  • Linguistic, also known as modern language art, is a science that studies human language in different approaches and makes use of many science fields. The general content of linguistic research as a tongue system; Language elements, linguistic units and their meanings. linguistics; Language formation, rooting and historical development; Versatile use of language in written and oral communication; Linguistic perception, learning and pronunciation, as well as possible language impairments.

 

  • Language semantics was first used in the 19th century. This term has been dealt with in order to distinguish a new approach in language reviews from traditional philology. Philology is concerned primarily with the historical development reflected in written texts. His field of study is culture and literature. Language cognition takes precedence over spoken languages, with written texts and with the change of language in time, the language solves a certain historical and related structure.

 

  • Language knowledge (linguistics) is generally divided into three main branches. This classification led to different opinions. It is still a matter of controversy whether comparative language or historical linguistics is the third main branch, while common language and applied linguistics are two of the main branches of linguistics.

 

  • A large number of large and small language areas of knowledge have emerged, both in content and in methodology, consisting of very different parts and associated with a multitude of other sciences.

 

  • Famous linguists list
  • Leonard Bloomfield is the most important representative of American structuralism in the period between the two world wars.
  • Franz Bopp is the founder of the Indo-European language family.
  • Karl Brugmann, the founder of the Indo-European language family and the new linguists at the end of 1870 in Leipzig
  • August Leskien is one of the prominent representatives of a group of linguists called new linguists from the school of Leipzig founded by Karl Brugmann and Hermann Osthoff.
  • Karl Bühler has developed the Organum Model, which describes the linguistic function.
  • Noam Chomsky, builder of Linguistics (language knowledge).
  • Joseph Greenberg has conducted extensive research on language typologies and has proposed global on-the-fly propositions. According to the origins of the African languages, the present classification of the Amerind
  • Eurasian has established macro language families.
  • Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm are seen as the founders of the German philology.
  • Zellig S. Haris is the chief editor of the American narrative.
  • Louis Hjelmslev is the principal representative of the Copenhagen School and is the creator of Glosematic theory.
  • Wilhelm von Humboldt has established comparative language.
  • William Labov is one of the most important researchers in social linguistics.
  • George Lakoff is one of the most important representatives of cognitive linguistics.
  • Roman Jakobson is a member of the Prague School and has undertaken groundbreaking research on language acquisition.
  • Antoine Meillet was interested in an Indian-European language family.
  • The economy has been studied as a driving force in language exchange.
  • Hermann Osthoff is the founder of the Indo-European language family and is one of the prominent representatives of the new linguists.
  • Hermann Paul is an important language theorist and one of the prominent representatives of the new linguists.
  • Harm Pinkster is a leading Latin linguist on Earth.
  • Edward Sapir is an important researcher in the language typology, especially for the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
  • Ferdinand de Saussure is the principal representative of the Geneva School, and as the founder of modern linguistics, he considers modern language art as a two-way sign.
  • August Schleicher is seen as the founder of genealogy theory in comparative language research.
  • Johannes Schmidt is the founder of the Wave Theory.
  • Nikolai Sergejewitsch Trubetzkoy is the leading representative of the Prague school and the founder of the sound science.
  • George Kingsley Zipf is a groundbreaking researcher in the field of quantum linguistics with Zipf Laws.

 

Linguistics
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