Hydrogen

  • What does hydrogen mean?
  • Hydrogen (Greek: ὑδρογόνο (idrogono = water), Latin: Hydrogenium) is a 1-atom ametal with the element symbol H. Under standard temperature and pressure, it is a colorless, odorless, non-metallic, tasteless, highly flammable diatomic gas found in H2. It is the lightest element among all elements with an atomic mass of 1.00794 g / mol. It is located on the upper left corner of the periodic table.

 

  • Hydrogen is the element most common in the environment, accounting for 75% of the mass of the universe. The majority of stars on the main line are made up of hydrogenated plasma. Elemental hydrogen is rare in the world. It can be produced from hydrocarbons such as methane in industry, it can be produced by electrolysis of water even though it is expensive.

 

  • The most common natural isotope of hydrogen is the protium without neutrality. Hydrogen can be compounded with many elements, found in water and in many organic molecules. It plays an important role in acid-base reactions between water-soluble molecules. Since the Schrödinger equation is the only neutral molecule that can be solved analytically, the energy steps and bond properties of the hydrogen atom play an important role in the development of the quantum mechanics.

 

  • History of Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen is a simple, most-found element of the universe that has been discovered in 1500 years, discovered in the 1700s over the years, and is a colorless, odorless gas that is 14.4 times lighter than air and totally non-poisonous.
  • The heat that the sun and the other stars give to the thermonuclear reaction is hydrogen, the main energy source of the universe. It can be made liquid at -252.77 ° C. The volume of liquid hydrogen is only 1 / 700th of its volume. Hydrogen has the highest energy content per unit mass of all known fuels. 1 kg of hydrogen, 2.1 kg of natural gas or 2.8 kg of petroleum. However, the volume per unit energy is high.

 

 

  • Obtaining Hydrogen
  • The hydrogen gas was artificially obtained for the first time by mixing metals with strong acids by T. Von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus, 1493 – 1521). This chemical reaction does not realize that this combustible gas obtained as a result is a new element.
  • In 1671, hydrogen was rediscovered by Robert Boyle, producing a reaction of iron bars and dilute acid solutions.
  • In 1766, Henry Cavendish came to realize that a separate element of hydrogen produced by the metal acid reaction, which burns in the air and releases water when it is burned. Cavendish’s encounter with hydrogen has been in his time with mercury and acids.

 

  • Initially, he thought that hydrogen was one of the constituent units of the cuvette, but that he was able to articulate many important features of hydrogen in a realistic way.

 

  • In 1783, Antoine Lavoiser repeats what Laplace and Cavendish have found, and when it burns, this gaseous hydrosphere gives hydrogen a name. One of the first uses of hydrogen is balloons and later zeplines.

 

  • For these purposes hydrogen metal iron and sulfuric acid have been obtained by reaction. Hydrogen Hindenburg is used in airborne ignition. In the balloons, inert helium was used instead of hydrogen, which was quite explosive.

 

  • Atomic Structure of Hydrogen
  • The hydrogen atom consisting of 1 proton and 1 electrons has played an important role in the development of the atomic structure thanks to its simple atomic structure, light absorption and emission spectrum.
  • The simple structure of the hydrogen molecule and its corresponding H2 + cation gave important information about the nature of the chemical bonds, which is the application of the quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom in the mid-1920s.

 

 

 

  • General properties of hydrogen
  • Name, symbol: hydrogen, H
  • Atomic number (Z): 1
  • Group, block: group 1, s-block
  • Period: period 1
  • Element category: diatomic nonmetal
  • Standard atomic weight (Ar): 1.008 (1.00784–1.00811)
  • Electron configuration: 1s1
  • per shell: 1
  • Color: colorless
  • Phase: gas
  • Melting point: 13.99 K ​(−259.16 °C, ​−434.49 °F)
  • Boiling point: 20.271 K ​(−252.879 °C, ​−423.182 °F)
  • Density at stp: (0 °C and 101.325 kPa) 0.08988 g/L
  • Oxidation states: −1, +1
  • CAS Number: 1333-74-0
  • Discovery: Henry Cavendish (1766)
  • Named by: Antoine Lavoisier (1783)

 

  • Place of hydrogen in the universe
  • Hydrogen constitutes 75% of the mass of the universe, 90% of the atoms, and is the element most common in the environment with these proportions. This element is found in stars, in large quantities on giant gas planets. Molecular hydrogen clouds are linked to the formation of stars. Hydrogen stars play an important role in generating energy through the proton-proton nuclear fusion reaction.

 

  • Hydrogen in the plasma is present in atomic or plasma form. The plasma state is quite different from the atomic state. In this case, the hydrogen electrons and proton are not connected and this has a very high electrical conductivity and light spread (the sun and other stars emit light). Charged particles are highly influenced by electric and magnetic fields. For example, in the solar wind, interacting with the world’s magnetosphere leads to Birkeland currents and auroras. Hydrogen in space is in neutral atomic state.

 

  • Under normal conditions, hydrogen is present as biotomic gas (H2). Due to its lightness, it can easily get rid of the gravitational force compared to other heavier gases. This is why the rate of hydrogen gas in the Earth’s atmosphere is quite low (1 ppm by volume). When hydrogen atoms and H2 molecules are abundant in space, their production and purification is very difficult in the world. Despite all this, hydrogen is the third most common element in the world. Hydrogen on earth is found in chemical compounds such as water, hydrocarbons. Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae. Today, methane gas is an increasing source of hydrogen.

 

  • Hydrogen Atom
  • Isotopes
  • Atomic nature has three isotopes. These are 1H, 2H, and 3H. Other highly unstable isotypes (4H – 7H) were synthesized in laboratory conditions.

 

  • 1H is 99.98% and hydrogen is the most abundant isotope in nature. This isotope is called prothium because it contains only one proton in the nucleus.

 

  • 2H is another stable isotope of hydrogen. Also known as deuterium. It contains 1 proton and 1 neutron in its core. Deuterium accounts for 0.0184% of hydrogen in the earth.
  • It is not radioactive and does not cause significant pollution. Instead of hydrogen in water, deuterium enriched water is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are used in non-radioactive labeling in chemical reactions and as solvent in 1 H-NMR.
  • Heavy water is used as a neutron control and coolant in nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a possible fuel in commercial core fuels.

 

  • 3H is also known as tritium.
  • It contains 2 neutrons and 1 proton at the core. It turns into Heliocyte 3 with beta decay through radioactivation and 12.32 years of half life. A small amount of tritium cosmic rays interacts with atmospheric gases.
  • It is also released into the air during nuclear weapons tests. Tritium is used in chemistry and in biotechnology radio-labeling experiments.
  • Hydrogen is the only element with the different names of isotopes. IA group elements, such as Ca, Sr, Ba, are reacted with water to produce hydrogen gas.

 

  • Ca (k) + 2H2O? Ca2 + (aq) + 2OH- (aq) + H2 (g)
Hydrogen
Author: wik Date: 4:32 pm
Science and Mathematics

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