• What does human mean?
  • Human is the only living species of Homo sapiens (Latin “smart man” or “know human”), the taxonomic name, Homo of the great apes family of primates. Anatomically emerged in Africa about 200,000 years ago and has attained modern behavior 50,000 years ago.
  • In a standstill, he has a relatively advanced brain, abstract thinking ability, and speaking ability. It has made it possible to build a wide range of tools and tools that use these abilities differently from other species in the world. The qualities that enable him to think at a higher level, such as his awareness, rationality and intelligence, are considered qualities that make a person “human”.

Human biological family tree

├─ Plants
├─ Mushrooms
├─ Protists
├─ Bacteria
└─ Animals

├─ Invertebrates
└─ The vertebrates

├─ Birds
├─ Reptiles
├─ Fish
├─ Amphibious
└─ Memories

├─ Carnivores
├─ Marine mammals
├─ Rodents
├─ Bats
├─ Insectivora
├─ Marsupial
└─ Primates

├─ Prosimian
├─ Monkeys
└─ Apes

├─ Gibbons
├─ Chimpanzee
├─ Gorilla
├─ Orangutan
└─ Human


  • Human organic evolution
  • The first human being
  • Although studies on the origin of human beings are mostly concentrated around the Homo genus, Australopithecus, As well as other hominides and hominins. According to the fossil record, the oldest fossils that fit anatomically the definition of modern human beings date back to 195,000 years ago and were found in Africa. The Cro-Magnon man, the first race of the modern type Homo sapiens subspecies, appeared 50 thousand years ago. There are two main hypotheses regarding the evolution of human beings. The first is the “one origin” hypothesis, which suggests that contemporary man emerged in Africa and spread to the world, the “multiple region” hypothesis, which suggests that the other evolved in different regions and turned into a modern man.


  • It is estimated that the creature that can be seen on two legs, the first common ancestor of contemporary man and other human apes, appeared in Africa about 6.5 million years ago. It is believed that this creature has to descend from the trees and stand standing may be due to climate change due to drought, food shortage, and migration necessity. Antopogenesis, the scientific name of organic evolution that began to form mankind, began about 3.5 million years ago. The starting point that deserves the human name is the emergence of the genus Homo.


  • The closest relatives of the contemporary human being who are not extinct are ordinary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (dwarf chimpanzee, Pan paniscus). Although these two chimpanzee species and humans have followed a different evolutionary line for about 6.5 million years, the closeness between them relative to the completed gene maps is ten times greater than the closeness between mouse and rat, only 10 times less than the closeness between two non-relatives. These two chimpanzee species and 98.4% of human DNA are completely identical.


  • Homo erectus
  • Homo erectus species emerged about 1.8 million years ago. Homo erectus skeleton given the Turkana boy name, which is in a fallen state in a bog, has achieved a lot of information about Homo erectus because it has reached almost exactly as it is day. Findings indicate that Homo erectus is quite large, hunting or carrots.


  • Homo neanderthalensis
  • There is archaeological evidence that Homo sapiens and Neanderthals, which appeared about 250-300 thousand years ago, have been around the world for a long time and that these two cats meet each other. Some argue that these two tribes may have been able to reproduce together without noticing that they are different, and so are Neanderthals at the root of modern man. As a matter of fact, it is understood that a fossil found in Asia has come to fruition with the mating of Neanderthal and Homo sapiens species. The bone-skeletal structure of Neanderthals is quite different from that of modern humans. The typical structure of the mandibular bone channel in the jawbone of Neanderthal man is a distinguishing feature. It is not known exactly how the Neanderthals are consumed. They are destroyed by Homo sapiens, who are smarter and more capable than some theories.


  • Many Neanderthal fossils have been found. For this reason, hominid species is the most informed species. The Neanderthals were extinct about 30,000 years ago. However, it is thought that a small part may have remained on the earth for much longer. Perhaps the big feet, etc., that have been around the world for thousands of years. At the origin of folkloric stories are these bulky and feathered hominids.


  • Studies in Neanderthal fossils show that their fingers are thick and bulky. This is proof that you can not do as thin a hand as a contemporary person. Neanderthals are social creatures who have lived together. They looked at the ones who were disheartened, they bore their deaths. Too many fossils have caused their deaths.


  • Human behavior
  • Sexuality
  • Sexual orientation, sexual identity, sexual perversions, sexual crimes, sexual organs, sexual relations, psychological-sexual development (psychosexual development) stages that involve male sexuality and female sexuality as two sub-domains are an umbrella term that includes sexually transmitted diseases.


  • Pornography
  • Pornography is the reflection of the human body or the sex of your sexuality in order to motivate sexually. Indulgence in pornographic images is more prevalent in males than in females. Research has revealed that men are willing to pay a small sum to look at “naked” human pictures, and women are willing to look at pictures only for money.
  • It turns out that monkeys and human apes also give pornography similar reactions to humans. Male monkeys showed the most interest in the face of the opposite sex and the dominant man in the group.






  • Crime
  • It is generally called “prohibited” or “penalized” behavior.


  • Culture
  • It is the distinctive values, norms and material goods that a group, a community and a society form. Culture is one of the most distinctive features of human social unity. With culture cumulative progress, there is a very slow change. Customs, customs and customs are what we can see at any moment. It forms the behavior codes or behavior patterns of a person.
  • People have developed science and technology to understand and control the world. Beliefs, myths, traditions, values ​​and social rules constitute culture, which is an important factor in human life.


  • Human body
  • Man has a body that allows the arms to be used, the arms are free. The brain has abilities to think abstractly, to make sense, to speak, and to be able to observe itself.
  • Human being is able to use tools and the characteristics of his mind are different from other living things. He can understand nature, control it and use the forces of nature in the direction of his own goals.


  • Races
  • Development stages of human
  • Infant | Childhood | Adolescence | Adulthood | Senile
  • Infancy (0-3 years)
  • Childhood (3-12 years)
  • Adolescence (12-21 years)
  • Adulthood (21-65 years)
  • Old age (65 years and over)


  • Human psychology
  • The basic characteristic of the human mind is consciousness. Along with consciousness, it is the special qualities that can be observed, to perceive the time, and to have free will. Psychology examines the human mind through the scientific point of view, while the religion examines the human with value judgments. He deals with the behavior being good or bad.


  • Mind
  • It is the consciousness of the human mind. This consciousness allows man to regulate his relationship with himself and his surroundings. We can assume the consciousness as the main feature that distinguishes man from other living things. Man also has free will and time consciousness.


  • Advanced features of man
  • Language
  • Language or language does not agree with words or signs to tell people what they think and feel. It can also be called speech and writing.


  • Religion
  • The word religion, which is an Arabic word, is the name given to all beliefs with various meanings, practices, values ​​and institutions, which have meanings such as “way, judge, reward” and are usually supernatural, sacred and moral. Sometimes it is used in place of the word of faith, and sometimes the word of faith is used in the place of the word of religion. When we look at the history of religions, it can be seen that the concept of religion has different forms in many different cultures, communities and individuals.
  • Mankind has been interested in the supernatural since ancient times, felt all alone in the human race, and felt the need for asylum in a god or god.
  • Man is in search of a being. This quest is from the past to the present day. As a result of this search, they have developed or accepted many belief systems, making use of various tangible and abstract phenomena that will make sense of their existence. Among these, the most basic is the belief in the existence of a god or many gods that can not be detected by meta, life, nature, or 5 senses but with reason and feeling.


  • Many people are afraid of death. Many religions have the belief that the existence will continue to change in form or dimension in some way. Even some of the individuals who do not believe in any religion or who do not accept the presence of a god have the idea that they will continue to be energy as a matter of human consciousness. This idea is due to the psychological discomfort that people have to think about after they die. This is another aspect of human being’s search for existence, and is a characteristic of directing to the world.


  • Creation myth
  • There is a belief that many dindigent people are created by a supreme being in their present form. It is believed that the human race in Abrahamic religions is made of Adam and his wife Havva, who believe to be the first human. Because this belief is not based on any anthropological basis, it is not taken into account in the scientific circles.


  • Society
  • People have built up advanced social structures. These structures may be unity or rival for the same purpose according to the situation. Family can be considered the most basic social structure. They have established states for security and justice. Speakers of the same language have formed nations.
Author: wik Date: 7:55 pm
Philosophy and Religion, Social sciences and society

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