Home » Health » HIV

HIV

  • What does hiv mean?
  • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), a virus that causes AIDS. HIV causes the disease by damaging the immune system. If the immune system, which protects the body from microorganisms, does not work, the microbe can cause disease more easily.

 

  • People who do not have HIV in their blood are HIV-negative. People with HIV in their blood are called “HIV positive” or “HIV infected“. These people are also positive sero (anti-HIV, or known as ELISA test), meaning that they have antibodies in their blood. However, seronegative individuals may also be infected during the first transmission period.

 

  • AIDS
  • AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, hereinafter referred to as Immune System Disorder). Subsequent acquired expression means that the disease is not irritable. Immune System Inadequate expression means that the body’s immune system has collapsed. Syndrome is a disease that may be linked to another disease.

 

  • A HIV carrier may not seem sick, or the carrier may not feel sick, and may not even know that he is carrying the HIV virus. Because it is not HIV itself that causes symptoms and death in HIV carriers, but other infections in which the body’s immune system has been completely defenseless.

 

  • Structure of HIV virus
  • The virus consists of p24 proteins surrounding the single-stranded RNA, and a small matrix surrounding the virus. The sheath contains glycoproteins that determine the antigenic structure of the virus.
  • The HIV virus has three glycoproteins. These:
  • Gp160: Two separate glycoproteins are formed by protease enzyme subdivision into gp120 and gp41. These proteins are found on the membrane of the virus.
  • Gp41: allows HIV to enter the cell.
  • Gp120: Helps HIV hold onto DNA.
  • LEDGF: Determines how HIV will enter DNA.

 

  • HIV Chronology
  • For the first time in Leopoldville, a person who lived in the Belgian Congo was identified in 1959. Since then, the blood stored in the locker has been confirmed to carry the disease with the HIV test developed in 1998.
  • A Norwegian sailor who traveled the world, traveling long in West Africa in 1961, died in 1966 with immune deficiency. His wife and daughter also died the same year.
  • Dr. Danish surgeon. Grethe Rath died in Zaire with a series of infections and rare Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
  • Between 1979 and 1981, 12 cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma, which is normally very rare, were detected.
  • In 1981, a lack of CD4 T cells (helper T cells) in a homosexual patient who was treated with Pneumocystis carinii at the University of California was detected.
  • In 1982 he gave the AIDS name to CDC.
  • In 1983, he was found to have had a retrovirus that would later be given the HIV name.
  • In 1984, an ELISA test for HIV was developed.

 

  • Transmission routes of HIV and measures
  • To be infected with the HIV virus, the virus must be transferred from one person to another within a short period of time as long as it does not deteriorate under external conditions. This can happen when the virus is transmitted from one person to another in the other body fluids. The HIV virus is found in four ways: sexual intercourse, direct blood contact, organ transplants and mother to baby.

 

  • Sexual intercourse
  • HIV is transmitted through the blood of a person carrying HIV virus, semen, vaginal discharge or other body fluids. This situation; Vaginal, anal or oral sex (parenteral route).

 

  • Using a condom made of latex can be protected from HIV virus. Birth control pills and non-latex condoms can not provide protection from the HIV virus. The HIV virus can be transmitted from both a man and a woman. Any sexually transmitted disease increases the chance of transmission of HIV virus.

 

  • There are two types of HIV virus. In Type II, the likelihood of infection with females is higher, while in Type I, the likelihood of infection with males is higher. In Africa type2 is more common than Europe and America type1.

 

  • Drug use
  • If a contaminating needle is shared with someone carrying an HIV virus, the virus can be transmitted. (This is the most important transmission of HIV among intravenous drug addicts.) Tattoos and pins used for piercing the body, contaminants can be transmitted to HIV …

 

  • Organ, blood and blood products transplanted
  • Organs, blood and blood products that have not undergone the necessary research tests can also be transmitted by HIV virus. Any organs, tissues, blood and blood products must be carefully controlled by the centers that accept materials taken before the transfer, in order to prevent this condition. Contamination can occur if the research test results in a false negative result in patients who are in window period.

 

  • Mother to baby
  • An HIV virus-bearing mother can infect the virus through her mother’s milk.

 

  • HIV tests
  • Since the HIV has entered the body, special antibodies are formed in the body to fight it. Screening methods such as ELISA test (indirect diagnostic method) or PCR test (Direct Diagnostic Method) which detects proteins of direct virus are used for detection of these antibodies.

 

  • At least 3 months (window period) is required for anti-HIV antibodies to reach measurable level by ELISA method. For this reason, the test should be done 3 months after the infection. In the PCR method, this time was reduced to 3 weeks.

 

  • The positive of the anti-HIV test indicates that the antibodies against the HIV virus are stable. However, there is also the possibility that the anti-HIV test may be false-positive. For this reason, a confirmation test called Western blot test should be done and the result should be positive so that the person can say that HIV is positive.

 

  • Anti-HIV testing can be done in the microbiology laboratories of university hospitals, in laboratories of insurance and state hospitals, and in private laboratories. Recently, direct quantification of the indirect presence of HIV virus can also be performed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method.

 

  • Window period
  • Some explanations should be made to get rid of the uncertainties about the window period; Because the expression “Three Months” leads to a widespread misconception that every individual who has been exposed to the HIV virus will produce antibodies in the ‘third month’. However, it is necessary to emphasize that window period varies from person to person. The “Quarterly” period is the ‘maximum‘ that international health care organizations set out to cover all inherent differences. So suppose that this is one hundred HIV-infected persons, 45%, on the 35th day; On the 50th day of 25%; On the 65th day of 15%; On the 75th day of 10%; 5% would reach adequate antibody level on the 90th day (Rates are completely fictitious). The “three months” limit, then, is the ‘maximum’ limit envisioned by adding the account to the ‘latest antibody producing entity‘.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Some major health organizations, such as the Center for Disease Control (CDA), argue that the test should be repeated at the sixth month. Anticoagulation (seroconversion) has been reported in very rare cases that last three months, but they are so rare that they are subject to medical articles. Many health organizations find the ‘sixth month’ test unnecessary and criticize the CDC for being conservative if there is not a very precise risk. The time periods given by some organizations in relation to the ‘window period‘ prove that the ‘Third Month’ should be considered as the maximum limit:

 

  • According to the brochure prepared by the New York Health Directorate, “In the HIV antibody tests used in New York, almost all of the infected people are positive in one month, and most of them are even positive in a shorter period of time.”

 

  • The California AIDS Center‘s guide, published in 1998, says that more people than 96% will get a positive ending hand between 2 and 12 weeks. In very rare circumstances, it has been stated that this may last six months. Advisors of the AIDS Health Project (USA) give an average duration of 25 days. “In most cases, HIV antibodies become visible at 6 to 8 weeks,” says the AIDS Update 98 brochure.

 

  • The HIVinsite website, which is a very rich archive in this regard, is defined as 6-12 weeks.

 

  • The American Seattle & King County Public Health Center says: “Most people come to the detectable antibody level within 4-6 weeks. Some people may take longer; But almost 99% will produce antibodies within three months. The events of seroconversion three months later are very rare.

 

  • Clinical Virology & Infectious Disease (2004), written by a doctor and virologist (Dr. Sindy Paul, Evan M Cadoff, Eugene Martin) working in AIDS services and laboratories, It is given in 30-60 days.

 

  • The San Francisco AIDS Society says: “The three-month window period is normal for all people, and most of these people produce detectable antibodies in three to four weeks.” In very, very rare cases, a human antibody production can reach six months.

 

  • The Red Crescent identifies antibodies in 2-6 weeks.

 

  • Red Cross gives the detection period of antibodies as 70 days at the latest.

 

  • In the American Public Health Agency’s Test Guideline, it is said that the window test period of the antibody test used between 1985-90 is 45 days on average.

 

  • But today’s tests say it has been reduced to 20 days, down to 25 days.

 

  • BERNARD WEBER, EL HADJI MBARGANE FALL; The articles written by ANNEMARIE BERGER and HANS WILHELM DOERR say that the window period is about 10.2 to 27.4 days long.

 

 

  • Hiv Treatment
  • There are positive developments in the treatment of HIV / AIDS. The combination of two or three of the different mechanisms of action from medicines up to sun exposure provides a quality and long life for HIV-positive people. Treatment should be maintained at the doctor’s discretion and throughout life. These drugs are very expensive. Aids are, of course, an immediate ELISA test so that they can have a long life span and, as with any disease, the benefit of early diagnosis is enormous. Getting HIV virus is not the end of everything, the patients who want can get psychological support from the Aids War Association.

 

  • Protection from hiv virus
  • Sperm and vaginal secretion HIV die a few hours in the outdoors and half an hour in the dry environment. HIV is also dead in a short time.
  • The killing of the patient or of the HIV-infected partner with seropositive blood, sperm or vaginal secretion:
  • The virus is killed by boiling the individual for a few minutes or by heating at 60 ° C for 30 minutes. The diluted bleach kills HIV in contact within 10 minutes. Sodium hypochlorite is the effective substance in the bleach, with chlorine. It is used by diluting the bleach according to the instructions on the bottle (usually 10 times). The reconstituted bleach should contain chlorine odor. When the bleach is used, it must be diluted, it will deteriorate. Bleeding water damages the mineral matter.
  • Ultraviolet irradiation (blue light) is an undesirable method for the destruction of HIV. The ultraviolet ray kills micros on the surface that it touches directly. It does not kill microbes left under cismin.

 

  • How is skin cleansed from HIV?
  • As with all the microbes, HIV can be removed by thorough washing with water and soap (at least 15 seconds). It may be appropriate to clean it with alcohol after it has been washed. In the event of injury, the wound should be thoroughly washed with soap and water, followed by an antiseptic such as tenturidine or betadine.

 

  • Emergence
  • It is thought that the disease of AIDS has passed from apes to humans in Africa. It is claimed that this virus may have passed by people who had been chimpanzee-hunting in central Africa when they were in contact with chimpanzees through the wounds they had received or afterwards.
HIV
Author: wik Date: 5:02 pm
Health


Wik's Random Content