History is a science that examines all the activities of past and present human beings and groups of people by showing place and time, establishing cause-effect relationships, and examining documents and findings.
Historical information is formed by presenting all information about events in the past as objectively as possible, taking into account the circumstances of the period in which the events took place.
History can not withstand experiments and observations like other sciences, since there is no possibility that the events that are happening can be experienced again.
History; A science is considered because people in the past objectively examine what they are doing in the light of documents, showing place and time within the cause and effect relationship.
All the words of history in Western languages come from the Greek word istoria. (Latin: Historia, Italian: Storia, French: Histoire, English: History, German: Historie). The word used in the meaning of knowledge in the dialect of the Ionian is used in the sense of acquiring knowledge through knowledge of the word Attica, in addition to the meanings of knowing as a witness, but also to cover physics, geography, astronomy, plant and animal knowledge and even nature knowledge in a wider sense.
Historical sources and method
Historians use a wide variety of sources in their research. The classification and interpretation of these sources within a certain hierarchy according to the order of importance is the main working method of the historian.
Classification of Resources
It constitutes the main sources of history.
Archival documents: documents found in archives belonging to public or private persons. Archives contain a wide variety of documents, such as official records, correspondence. Published official papers: Laws, Decrees, Decisions
Remembrances, works, literary studies
The media of the press (newspapers, magazines)
It is the biggest source of oral history. The most important characteristic is that the human element, which is also the object of history, is taken as the basic information source.
Other sources of oral history are; Historical poems, stories, legends, myths, epics, menkbes, jokes, and proverbs.
Materials obtained from archaeological excavations. Stone, earth, bone and various mines of goods, cave paintings, reliefs, graves, sculptures are these.
Drawing, Audio and Video Resources
These sources include; Maps, plans, stone plates, photographs, etc. For example. However, the assembly can be done on tape, cd, dvd etc. Causes the document to lose one hundred percent reliability.
Any kind of finding related to the turn of the historical event.
It is the artifacts brought to the square by using the resources of the period near or near the turn of the event. These artifacts can stay longer.
Photographs and daily necessities (eg vase motifs for Ancient Greek society) can form the basis of historical studies as a first-hand source when written and oral sources are not enough (or to complement these sources).
Use of resources
History of art is an art based on facts, but it is not possible to reflect objectivity in its entirety. The fact that historical works are based on first-hand sources, archival documents does not mean that these works give absolute information on the subject they are studying, not the last word. The causes of this situation can be divided into two groups, one depending on resources (objective) and the other depending on history:
Archival documents are not always a reliable source; For example, it is possible that official records reflect truly remote information while they are still being received. The historian follows a critical approach to the sources, taking into account these possibilities.
The choice of documents to be used affects the interpretation of history in various ways, such as the form of presentation, the aim of the study of history, the personal political-ideological preferences of the historian, and the political-ideological conditions of the period in which the historian wrote. Therefore, it is possible to reach different interpretations of history by going out of the same archive documents.
History Writing Types
There are three types of historiographies: history writing types, language characteristics, and meaning. These:
History of Writing
This style first appeared in ancient Greece. In the beginning, memories circulating in the mouth are spoken in poetry style by poets and they are called “epos“, they are narrated by logographers and translated into prose and some facts are mixed with the addition of material in archives. But, again, with the expression of Strabon they can not escape from “epos“. The works of logographers are neither literary nor historical. It is “simple chronicles” that open the path of scientific research only. Although Herodotos, known as “Father of History“, has gone out of the way of Logographers, he has made him a center, and his superiority of understanding leaves them. Herodotus also used the history of storytellers. But the facts were not followed in order, they were transported in order and gave an example of composition. In his work there are political opinions. Criticism has made a distinction between what he sees and what he hears, as well as his lack of thought.
Tutorial History Writing
These kinds of works written in order to take lessons from past events, to draw the future way forward and to infuse the reader with moral and national sentiments are included in the trend of “historical” which is called “teaching” or “pragmatic“. The person who led this style was Thukydides (Tukididis). In a true sense, historiography began with his work “The Battle of the Athenians with the Pelopennes.” This work is not only literary, but also very different from the earlier works in terms of method and mentality. This difference is a matter of work, and it shows itself in its content. Once the work has been limited in terms of time and space, it has been dedicated only to the events of the devil where the author lived; The state was regarded as the center of historical realism, and it was fulfilled in principle. Thukydides (Tukudides) became a political history writer because the essence of the state thought constitutes politics. Thukydides (Tukudides) has also given a new meaning to research because of its growing style. This is also “beneficial in political education“. Thus, for the first time, the place of history science in the social sciences has been determined. The aim here is to be beneficial, to increase experience through history, to increase knowledge, and to make people successful. The conditions are:
Staying true to the truth,
When describing events and situations, it is the relationship between them.
Based on this knowledge, by learning history, it is now possible to judge the present situation and the future in this way. This type of historiography has also been adopted by other ancient Greek and Roman historians after Thukydides (Tukudides); Writers like Polybios, Plutarkhos, Tacitius, Machiavelli have gone from his footsteps. The most prominent feature of pragmatic historiography is the fact that historically well-known figures have been given a wide space, their idealization, or even their supernatural beings. The “Siyer” books in Islamic historiography can be seen as an example of this text. Since Thukydides opened its ground and aimed to reveal historical facts, it also acted as a model, so in the works of the authors who embraced it, attention was given to the processing of victories and bright events, and silence was preferred against failures and frustrations. This constitutes the greatest weakness of the teaching style.
Researcher History Writing
It is a way of telling events in a simple way without considering the events and consequences in depth, considering the social and economic structures of the time and the climate and all other conditions in terms of space and time. It came out in the century.
Archeology: It is a science that historians make use of, especially by providing information about the conditions in the absence of writing.
Philosophy: In the events of history, knowing the philosophy of the period and learning the structure of thought allows the historian to understand the events more deeply.
Epigraphy: The text above the stone and marble inscriptions is examined.
Chronology: It is the science that sorts, orders and regulates the place of historical events in time.
Sociology: Helps the history science to know the characteristics of the societies in historical events through the study of society.
Ethnography: examines the customs, traditions and customs of society.
Paleography: Old texts are scarce science. It is a science that historians have benefited from in the context of the meaning of written sources.
Geography: The historian must know his place in order to better understand the events. The mountains of that place, the rivers, the soil characteristics and so on. Such information gives him geographical knowledge.
Diplomacy: History helps by reviewing and classifying official documents.
Toponomi: Location names
Heraldik: The Armor is a science that does not care.
Anthropology: It is a science that studies the origins of people.
Onomastic: Name science.
Psychology: It is a science that studies the mood and character of people.
Politics: History is used to study a society historically and to ensure the development of society from a historical point of view.
Chemistry: The carbon 14 experiment examines which turns the findings belong to.