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Historiography

  • What does mean historiography or historical writing?
  • Historical writing or historiography is the term used to describe the history and the history of history as well as the writing of historical works. The term comes from the Greek ἱστοριογράφος historians (ἱστορία historia “history” and γράφος graphos “spelling”, γράφειν meaning “person who writes history (or narrative)” from the root “write” of graphite). It is often used synonymously with the term historicity, but history as a contemporary discipline creates a separate title. Historical writing is a part of both the art of writing and history. The emphasis on the “art” (τέχνη tékhnē) and “science” (ἐπιστήμη epistḗmē) properties of the history area is an important issue that historians have pointed out in terms of methodology. Some of them refer to multiple “histories” not because of a single “history” but because of the conditions and consequences of the event. Historical scholarship or such a scientific state (the science being done) is indispensable for contemporary historians. It is even more common to see that they are complementary rather than two incompatible features completely separate from each other.

 

  • The history of a given topic is how the historian of the subject worked with it to reveal by using specific sources, methods and theoretical approaches. Historians analyze the history of the subject in terms of “political history“, “social history” – such as “the history of the British Empire“, “early Islamic historiography“, or “Chinese historiography” Starting from the 19th century, a scientific literature called the historiography was born with the rise of the academic history. To what extent historians are influenced by their own identity and identity – such as nationalism / nation state or religion – is often a matter of debate.

 

  • The research topics of the historians may change, especially in recent years, a shift from traditional diplomatic, economic and political history to new approaches to social and cultural spheres. From 1975 to 1995, the percentage of history professors dealing with social history in American universities rose from 31% to 41%, while the percentage of those interested in political history dropped from 40% to 30%. In history parts of Britain’s universities, 1,644 (29%) out of 5.723 teaching staff in 2007 have associated themselves with social history, compared with 1,425 (25%) interested in political history.

 

  • Terminology
  • In Europe, the term “historiography” in the Early Modern period was used more basically as “historiography”. “Historiograph” was a “historian”, and in this sense it was used in Sweden (since Rikshistoriograph, 1618), in England (historiographer Royal, since 1660) and in Scotland (historiographer Royal, since 1681) Royal historian “. This authority is still available in Scotland. The historiography of Furay and Salevouris (1988) describes “the history of the written and written history – the history of the history of the historian …” In the historiography researches, you will search for altered interpretations of these events in the works of a single historian,

 

  • Historiography (History writing) as a meta-date
  • If history is accepted by most of the historians, you must resort to scientific and scientific methods that examine the past of mankind. Although the practices of natural sciences can not be pursued, they can be acted comparatively according to the social sciences.
  • Another thought that sees history as a kind of knowledge is “history theory” (also found by Jose Ortega y Gasset), which can also be called Historiography. The aim of this approach is to examine “the structure of the historical reality, its laws and conditions”; “Historical writing”, as it is in history, is the art of writing, the scientific research of its sources and the works of the authors.
  • Although it is not possible to overcome these three terminology overlaps and their multiple meanings, the most probable definitions are:
  • History” as experienced events
  • Historical science as “historiography
  • Epistemology” as “historiology
  • Philosophy of history, if any, is a philosophy that deals with the meaning of human history. It examines the development of a teleological final, that is, whether it is a design, an aim or a guiding principle that influences the history of humanity. It should not be confused with the previous three concepts which are completely separate. If you are to find out if your goal is to presume the reality or the time, whether it is linear or cyclical, or if it has the idea of ​​progress, then these questions are foreign to the history and history of the discipline. An intellectual approach does not contribute much to the issue of how history science is understood. This philosophical point of view is to overcome historicalism, which sees all realities as a product of historical process.

 

  • When we delve into superficial problems, the analysis of the history of the historiographical record is the exploration of the past, often the narrative of the past, the interpretation and the perspectives, and the way the historians present it with the use of the evidence and documents – Along with the historical object and philosophical essence of science. Historical writing, in its simplest form, is the writing of history. Broadly speaking, the practice and method of writing the history is found. More precisely, it refers to the writing of the story itself.
  • Resources and evaluation in historiography (historical writing)
  • It is important to distinguish the works of the historian from the raw material (the primary source) of half-completed or completed works (secondary source or even tertiary source). It is also a serious issue to distinguish between the source and document and the study of documentary sources: classification, priority and genre (written, verbal, archaeological); Evaluation (compilation, criticism, comparison), and especially respecting sources with respect to their quotation. The authenticity of the work of the historians is a meticulous matter.

 

  • Pre-Modern historiography
  • Understanding history is seen as a universal need of man, and the narrative of history has emerged independently of civilizations around the world. The question of history is a philosophical question (philosophy of history). The earliest chronologies go to Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, but the names of the historians at this time are unknown. In the context of historiography, history means records of written history in which future generations are told to inform about past events. Some experts oppose inferential thinking about the tendency to find historical patterns that do not fit their future estimates.

 

  • Greek civilization historiography
  • The earliest known historical historiography appeared in ancient Greece. This development has an important influence on the entire history of the Mediterranean region. Historian methodologists have made important contributions to Greek historians. The oldest known historical piece of history is the Hereditary History compiled by Herodotus (484-425 BC), known as the “father of history”. Herodot refers to written sources of various Mediterranean cultures, based on evaluations of reliable sources and based on personally conducted travel records. Herdot’s main focus is on people’s personalities and actions, but also on the determination of divine power in the development of historical events.
  • The next generation of Herdot witnessed the history of local history and the history of individual city states, local historians working in city and temple archives. Dionysus of Halicarnassus described these historians as the heralds of Tukidides, and these dates continued to be written until the Late Antiquity as long as the city states continued. Elisli Hippias, who keeps the list of winners of the Olympic Games during the classic pagan tradition and provides the basic chronological framework, and Hellanicus Lesbos, who compiled history from the non-existent civilian records, are two important figures of this period.
  • In the summer of a battle between Athens and Sparta, Tukidides has abandoned the “divine causality” broadly and initiated a logical explanation of the tradition that will take place in later Western historiography. He also worked on the autobiographical and character analysis of Xenophon (431-355 BC) Anabasis from his successors, who were the first ones to separate between the direct causes and consequences of an event.
  • Athenian orator, Demosthenes (384-322 BC) II. The heavy criticism of Filip has been the culmination of political provocation of the antiquity. The history of Ptolemais I (367-283 BC), about which Alexander I was not able to arrive at any time, tells about the expeditions of Alexander the Great, the first history work compiled by a ruler. Polybius (203-120 BC) tried to write by reconciling the Greek and Roman perspectives of Rome’s domination of the world.
  • The revered priest Berossus (3rd century BC) used Hellenistic historiographical methods and Mesopotamian sources to reveal an authentic history in the Greek “Babylonian History”, which he compiled for Seleucus I, Selevkos. There is also information about the Near East history, like the Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon; But they are regarded as semi-legendary and fragmented, which later historians, who may have even been written before the Trojan War, have been claimed by Philip and Eusebius.

 

  • Roman civilization historiography
  • The Romans used Greek tradition to write Greek; But afterwards they printed out in Greek. While the early Roman writings were still written in Greek, the “Origins” compiled by the Roman statesman Bilge Cato (234-149 BC) were consciously written in Latin to resist the cultural influence of Greek. This is the beginning of Latin literary writing. The Bellum Gallicum of Julius Caesar (BC 100-44 BC), known for his understandable style, describes the autobiographical war memories. Politician and orator Cicero (106-43 BC) has added rhetorical items to his political writings.

 

  • Strabo (63 BC-24 AD) is an important interpreter of the Greco-Roman tradition that combines historical geography and describes the history of places and people of its time. Livy (59 AD-17 AD) describes the rise of the Roman Empire from the city-state empire. It is the first known alternative history to think, “What would have happened to Alexander the Great?”

 

  • Although biography was common throughout the Antiquity, Suetonius (AD 69-130) described his people’s characters and actions with emphasis on their human side, as a separate history branch with the work of Plutarch (AD 46-127). Tacitus (56-117) criticize the moral values ​​of the Roman Cerman and elaborate on the concept of “noble wild“.

 

  • East Asia historiography
  • Ancient China historiography
  • In China, “Historical Classics” is one of China’s classical texts, “Five Classics” and China’s oldest history storytelling. The Spring and Autumn Yearbooks, official records of the Lu State and covering 722-481 BC, are the first everyday texts of Chinese history that are organized in an annual style. These are usually attributed to Confucius. Zuo Zhuan from the 5th century BC, attributed to Zuo Qiuming, is one of the first Chinese history narratives covering 722-468 BC. Zhan Guo Ce is a well-known text collected from rare works during the Warring States Period between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC.

 

  • Sima Qian (around 100 BC) is the first professional to base the writing on Chinese history. His work Shiji (Record of the Greatest Historians) is a masterpiece compiled for life in literature. Its scope extends to the 16th century BC and includes scientific studies on certain topics with the life story of important people. It also sheds light on the lives and actions of ordinary people of time and earlier periods. The protest influenced all of the later Chinese historians, including the respectable Ban family from the Early Han Dynasty.
  • Traditional Chinese historiography describes historical events in terms of dynastic periods. From this point of view, every new dynasty was founded by morally strong people. Over time, the dynasties are morally corrupt and weak. In the end, it can not prevent a new dynasty from taking its place.

 

  • Korea historiography
  • The history of Korean history was established by the work Samguk Sagi tells about the history that started from the legendary first periods of Korea. This work has been compiled by Goryeo Chief of the Institute, Kim Busik, at the request of King Goryeo Injong (1122 – 1146). After its completion in 1145, it was used not only as a historical source in China, but also in Hwarang Segi written by historian Kim Daemun in the 8th century. The other piece he compiles is lost.

 

  • Japan historiography
  • The first historical monument in Japan Rikkokushi is a collection of six national historical monuments describing the period from Japan’s legendary beginning to the 9th century. The first of these works was Nihon Shoki, which was compiled by Prince Toneri in 720.

 

 

 

  • Christianity historiography
  • Christian historiography presupposes, firstly, the writings of the Luka Gospel, which is believed to have controversial historical reality, and Christian clerics and researchers, who have studied the work of the Messengers as the primary source for the Period of the Apostles. New Testament texts began to form in early Christian times. The development of Christianity and Christianity after Constantine I in the Roman Empire contributed to the formation of a discrete Christian historiography surrounded by new fields of study and perspectives through the influence of the nature of the Bible. When the main role of the Bible in Christianity is compared with the classical historians’ oral source preferences, Christian historians have come up with written source preferences and the inclusion of politically insignificant people. Christian historians were also interested in the development of religion and society at the same time. This can be seen in the work of Eusebius Caesarean, written in 324, and the intensive written source he has made for the topics he has included. Christian theology thinks that history is linear, and that it progresses according to divine allegiance. The works of Christian historians of this period include a universal approach, as God’s inclusivity covers all. For example, writers also add to their books a summary of important events from previous times of their work.

 

  • In the Middle Ages, the historiography was spread among the members of the Qurban by the Christian priests. Jesus Christ, the church, the church administrators, and the local administrators’ family histories. In the Early Middle Ages, the historiography was in chronicles recorded annually or year-by-year, but this makes it difficult to examine the causes and consequences of events. One example of these works is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, which began in the late 9th century, from various works of different authors, and a copy still continues to be written in 1154. Some authors of this period developed a storytelling history. These were Bede, the writer of Gregory of Tours and the more successful Church History of the English Society, which wrote secular and religious histories.

 

  • In the Renaissance, history is written on states and nations. History researches have changed in the Age of Enlightenment and in the Romantic period. Voltaire described the dates of certain periods he considered important rather than chronologically describing events. Thus history has become a separate space; It is now called history, not history philosophy.

 

  • Islamic world historiography
  • Muslim historiography began to develop in the 7th century, rewriting in the following years after the death of Muhammad’s prophet’s life. The authenticity of sources should be tested because of the many contradictory accounts of Muhammad and his companions of various sources. Several methods have been developed for this welding test; Rical science, hadith and Isnad. These methods were later applied to the historical personalities of the Golden Age of Islam. Important historians in this are Urbah ibni Zubeyir (d. 712), Vahhab ibni Münebbih (d. 728), Ibni Ishaq (d. 716), Vākidî (745-822), Ibni Hisham (d. 834), Muhammad al-Bukhari 810-870) and Ibn Khar al-Attalani (1372-1449). Historians of the Middle Ages Islamic World have also been interested in world history.

 

  • The Islamic historiography reached its peak with the work of the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406). He published his historical works in the works of Mukaddime and Kitab al-Iber. His works were forgotten until they were rediscovered in the 19th century.

 

  • Enlightenment
  • Throughout the Age of Enlightenment, the modern development of the history began with the application of meticulous methods.

 

  • Voltaire
  • The French philosopher Voltaire (1694-1778) has an important influence on the art of history. The most important historical works known XIV. The Period of Louis (1751) and the Experiments on the Traditions and Spirits of the Nations (1756). “My primary purpose,” writer wrote in 1739, is “not political or military history, but art, trade, civilization history: – in short – history of human mind.” Diplomatic and military events from the tradition has been broken, customs, social history, science and emphasized the developments in the world.
  • “An Experiment on the Menace” also followed the development of world civilization in a universal context, thus rejecting both nationalism and traditional Christian point of view. Bossuet, the earliest scholar who had worked diligently on world history writing, was distracted from the theological frameworks and influenced by “The Discourse on Universal History” (1682), which emphasized economic, cultural, and political history.
  • He approached Europe as a whole, not as an international community. He was the first to say that the medieval cult was indebted to the Arab Civilization, but on the other hand it was incomplete in the Middle Ages. He has been constantly warned about his political affiliation, but has missed the opportunity to express what he sees as frauds and intolerance that Kilisen has made throughout history.
  • The Voltaire scholars have advised not to believe anything that is contrary to the normal course of nature. Although he finds evil in the historical sources, he has fervently believed that education of the ruthless and ignorant masses will lead to progress. Voltaire explains his view of the historiography in Diderot’s Encyclopédie’s “History” in the following way: “The more detail the modern historian wants, the more carefully he identifies well-defined facts, definite histories, traditions, laws, customs, trade, capital, agriculture and population. “

 

  • Voltaire’s work used the values ​​of Enlightenment to study the past. He tried to save my writing from antiquity, European centrism, religious intolerance, focusing on big men, diplomacy and war. Peter Gay Voltaire wrote that he wrote “very good history”, that he “emphasizes rigor in reality”, “the rigorous examination of evidence”, “the clever decision of what is important”, “the closeness to the actions” and the fact that all civilization is a single field of work “By quoting it.

 

  • David Hume
  • At the same time, philosopher David Hume had a similar influence over history in Great Britain. In 1754 he published the History of England, a six-volume study dating back to the “Revolution of 1688” from “Julius Caesar’s Occupation.” Hume studied the history of the kings, the Parliament and the armies, as well as a field similar to Voltaire in history; He studied the history of culture including science. The short biographies he wrote about his pioneering scientists explained the process of scientific change and developed new ways of studying them by looking at relations between scientists and each other and society at large – especially Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton and William Harvey.

 

  • He stated that the most qualified method of historical judging was possible through the search for freedom, and after much fluctuation, he wrote that England had reached “the highest level of liberty known by mankind” at the time of his writing.

 

 

  • Some big history magazines list
  • 1840 Historisk tidsskrift (Denmark)
  • 1859 Historische Zeitschrift (Germany)
  • 1866 Archivum historicum, after Historiallinen arkisto (Finnish, published in Finnish)
  • 1867 Századok (Hungary)
  • 1869 Časopis Matice moravské (Czech Republic – later part of Austria-Hungary)
  • 1871 Historisk tidsskrift (Norway)
  • 1876 ​​Revue Historique (France)
  • 1880 Historisk tidskrift (Sweden)
  • 1886 English Historical Review (UK)
  • 1892 William and Mary Quarterly (USA)
  • 1894 Ons Hémecht (Luxembourg)
  • 1895 American Historical Review (USA)
  • 1895 Český časopis historický (Czech Republic – later part of Austria-Hungary)
  • 1914 Mississippi Valley Historical Review (1964)
  • 1916 The Journal of Negro History (USA)
  • 1916 Historisk Tidskrift für Finland (published in Finland, Swedish)
  • 1918 Hispanic American Historical Review (USA)
  • 1922 Slavonic and East European Review (SEER), (UK)
  • 1928 Scandia (Sweden)
  • 1929 Annales d’histoire économique et sociale (France)
  • 1935 Journal of Southern History (USA)
  • 1941 The Journal of Economic History (USA)
  • 1952 Past & present: a journal of historical studies (England)
  • 1953 Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (Germany)
  • 1956 Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria (Nigeria)
  • 1957 Victorian Studies (USA)
  • 1960 Journal of African History (UK)
  • 1960 Technology and culture: the international quarterly of the Society for the History of Technology (USA)
  • 1967 Indian Church History Review (India) (previously known as the Bulletin of the Church History Association of India)
  • 1967 The Journal of Social History (USA)
  • 1969 Journal of Interdisciplinary History (USA)
  • 1975 Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift für historische Sozialwissenschaft (Germany)
  • 1976 Journal of Family History (USA)
  • 1978 The Public Historian (USA)
  • 1982 Storia della Storiografia – History of Historiography – Histoire de l’Historiographie – Geschichte der Geschichtsschreibung
  • 1982 Subaltern Studies (Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press)
  • 1986 Zeitschrift für Sozialgeschichte des 20. und 21. Jahrhunderts, the latter name from 2003: Sozial.Geschichte. Zeitschrift für historische Analyze des 20. und 21. Jahrhunderts (Germany)
  • 1990 Gender and History (USA)
  • 1990 Journal of World History (USA)
  • 1990 L’Homme. Zeitschrift für feministische Geschichtswissenschaft (Austria)
  • 1990 Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften (OZG)
  • 1992 Women’s History Review

 

  • Research topics historiography
  • The main research topics of my writing are:
  • Reliability in terms of the authorship of the resources used, the reputation of the author, the authenticity or falsity of the text.
  • Tradition in the history of the used frame. Every historian uses one (or more) tradition; Eg Marxist, Annales, “total history” or political history.
  • Moral issues, blame or praise.
  • Revisionist-Orthodox interpretations.
  • Historical succession.

 

  • Bottom image about historiography:
  • Jacob de Wit‘s historiography on the allegorical work (1754). The truth in a semi-naked state is looking up at the author of history. Athena (goddess of wisdom) gives advice to the left.
Historiography
Author: wik Date: 2:00 am
History

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