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March 31

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  • What happened on March 31
  • March 31 is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 275 days remaining until the end of the year.

 

  • Events on March 31
  • 307 – After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian.
  • 627 – Battle of the Trench: Muhammad undergoes a 14-day siege at Medina (Saudi Arabia) by Meccan forces under Abu Sufyan.
  • 1146 – Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade.
  • 1492 – Queen Isabella of Castille issues the Alhambra Decree, ordering her 150,000 Jewish and Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.
  • 1561 – The city of San Cristóbal, Táchira is founded.
  • 1717 – A sermon on “The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ” by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provokes the Bangorian Controversy.
  • 1774 – American Revolutionary War: The Kingdom of Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed pursuant to theBoston Port Act.
  • 1822 – The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following an attempted rebellion, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.
  • 1854 – Commodore Matthew Perry signs the Convention of Kanagawa with the Tokugawa Shogunate, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.
  • 1885 – The United Kingdom establishes the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
  • 1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened.
  • 1899 – Malolos, capital of the First Philippine Republic, is captured by American forces.
  • 1906 – The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later the National Collegiate Athletic Association) is established to set rules for college sports in the United States.
  • 1909 – Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • 1913 – The Vienna Concert Society rioted during a performance of modernist music by Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Alexander von Zemlinsky, and Anton von Webern, causing a premature end to the concert due to violence; this concert became known as the Skandalkonzert.
  • 1917 – The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the United States Virgin Islands.
  • 1918 – Massacre of ethnic Azerbaijanis is committed by allied armed groups of Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolsheviks. Nearly 12,000 AzerbaijaniMuslims are killed.
  • 1918 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States for the first time.
  • 1921 – The Royal Australian Air Force is formed.
  • 1930 – The Motion Picture Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in film, in the U.S., for the next thirty-eight years.
  • 1931 – An earthquake destroys Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000.
  • 1931 – TWA Flight 599 crashes near Bazaar, Kansas, killing eight, including University of Notre Dame head football coach Knute Rockne.
  • 1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission of relieving rampant unemployment in the United States.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then a British possession.
  • 1945 – World War II: A defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1, the world’s first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft, to the Americans, the first to fall into Allied hands.
  • 1949 – The Dominion of Newfoundland joins the Canadian Confederation and becomes the 10th Province of Canada.
  • 1951 – Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau.
  • 1957 – Elections to the Territorial Assembly of the French colony Upper Volta are held. After the elections PDU and MDV form a government.
  • 1958 – In the Canadian federal election, the Progressive Conservatives, led by John Diefenbaker, win the largest percentage of seats in Canadian history, with 208 seats of 265.
  • 1959 – The 14th Dalai Lama, crosses the border into India and is granted political asylum.
  • 1964 – A coup d’état in Brazil establishes a military government, under the aegis of general Castelo Branco.
  • 1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
  • 1970 – Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere after 12 years in orbit.
  • 1979 – The last British soldier leaves the Maltese islands; Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien).
  • 1980 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad operates its final train after being ordered to liquidate its assets because of bankruptcy and debts owed tocreditors.
  • 1985 – The first WrestleMania, the biggest wrestling event from the WWE (then the WWF), takes place in Madison Square Garden in New York City.
  • 1990 – Approximately 200,000 protesters take to the streets of London to protest against the newly introduced Poll Tax.
  • 1991 – Georgian independence referendum, 1991: Nearly 99 percent of the voters support the country’s independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1992 – The USS Missouri, the last active United States Navy battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California.
  • 1998 – Netscape releases Mozilla source code under an open source license.
  • 2004 – Iraq War in Anbar Province: In Fallujah, Iraq, four American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed after being ambushed.
  • 2016 – Occupy movement known as Nuit debout begins in France, spreading within days to Belgium, Germany, and Spain.

 

 

 

  • Births on March 31
  • 250 – Constantius Chlorus, Roman emperor (d. 306)
  • 397 – K’uk B’alam I, king of Palenque
  • 822 – Al-Mutawakkil, Abbasid caliph (d. 861)
  • 1347 – Frederick III, Duke of Austria, second son of Duke Albert II of Austria (d. 1362)
  • 1360 – Philippa of Lancaster (d. 1415)
  • 1499 – Pope Pius IV (d. 1565)
  • 1519 – Henry II of France (d. 1559)
  • 1536 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese shogun (d. 1565)
  • 1596 – René Descartes, French mathematician and philosopher (d. 1650)
  • 1621 – Andrew Marvell, English poet and politician (d. 1678)
  • 1644 – Henry Winstanley, English painter and engineer (d. 1703)
  • 1651 – Charles II, Elector Palatine, German husband of Princess Wilhelmine Ernestine of Denmark (d. 1685)
  • 1675 – Pope Benedict XIV (d. 1758)
  • 1685 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German organist and composer (d. 1750)
  • 1718 – Mariana Victoria of Spain (d. 1781)
  • 1723 – Frederick V of Denmark (d. 1766)
  • 1730 – Étienne Bézout, French mathematician and theorist (d. 1783)
  • 1732 – Joseph Haydn, Austrian pianist and composer (d. 1809)
  • 1740 – Panoutsos Notaras, Greek politician (d. 1849)
  • 1747 – Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, German pianist and composer (d. 1800)
  • 1777 – Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French physicist and engineer (d. 1859)
  • 1778 – Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Dutch zoologist and ornithologist (d. 1858)
  • 1794 – Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American lawyer and politician, 2nd United States Secretary of the Interior (d. 1852)
  • 1809 – Edward FitzGerald, English poet and translator (d. 1883)
  • 1809 – Nikolai Gogol, Ukrainian-Russian short story writer, novelist, and playwright (d. 1852)
  • 1809 – Otto Lindblad, Swedish composer (d. 1864)
  • 1819 – Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (d. 1901)
  • 1823 – Mary Boykin Chesnut, American author (d. 1886)
  • 1847 – Hermann de Pourtalès, Swiss sailor (d. 1904)
  • 1847 – Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician and theorist (d. 1878)
  • 1851 – Francis Bell, New Zealand lawyer and politician, 20th Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1936)
  • 1855 – Alfred E. Hunt, American businessman (d. 1899)
  • 1859 – Emil Fenyvessy, Hungarian actor and screenwriter (d. 1924)
  • 1865 – Anandi Gopal Joshi, Indian physician (d. 1887)
  • 1871 – Arthur Griffith, Irish journalist and politician, 3rd President of Dáil Éireann (d. 1922)
  • 1872 – Sergei Diaghilev, Russian ballet manager and critic, founded the Ballets Russes (d. 1929)
  • 1874 – Benjamín G. Hill, Mexican revolutionary general, governor of Sonora (d. 1920)
  • 1876 – Borisav Stanković, Serbian author (d. 1927)
  • 1878 – Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
  • 1884 – Adriaan van Maanen, Dutch-American astronomer and academic (d. 1946)
  • 1885 – Pascin, Bulgarian-American painter and illustrator (d. 1930)
  • 1890 – Ben Adams, American jumper (d. 1961)
  • 1890 – William Lawrence Bragg, Australian-English physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
  • 1891 – Victor Varconi, Hungarian-American actor and director (d. 1976)
  • 1893 – Clemens Krauss, Austrian conductor and manager (d. 1954)
  • 1893 – Herbert Meinhard Mühlpfordt, German physician and historian (d. 1982)
  • 1895 – Vardis Fisher, American author and academic (d. 1968)
  • 1900 – Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (d. 1974)
  • 1905 – Robert Stevenson, English director and screenwriter (d. 1986)
  • 1905 – George Treweek, Australian rugby league player (d. 1991)
  • 1906 – Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Japanese physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979)
  • 1908 – Red Norvo, American vibraphone player and composer (d. 1999)
  • 1911 – Freddie Green, American guitarist (d. 1987)
  • 1911 – Elisabeth Grümmer, German soprano (d. 1986)
  • 1912 – William Lederer, American soldier and author (d. 2009)
  • 1913 – Etta Baker, American singer and guitarist (d. 2006)
  • 1914 – Octavio Paz, Mexican poet and diplomat, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
  • 1914 – Dagmar Lange, Swedish author (d. 1991)
  • 1915 – Albert Hourani, English historian and author (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Shoichi Yokoi, Japanese sergeant (d. 1997)
  • 1916 – Lucille Bliss, American voice actress (d. 2012)
  • 1916 – Tommy Bolt, American golfer (d. 2008)
  • 1916 – John H. Wood, Jr., American lawyer and judge (d. 1979)
  • 1917 – Dorothy DeLay, American violinist and educator (d. 2002)
  • 1918 – Ted Post, American director (d. 2013)
  • 1919 – Frank Akins, American football player (d. 1993)
  • 1920 – Deborah Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, British aristocrat, socialite and author (d. 2014)
  • 1921 – Peggy Rea, American actress and casting director (d. 2011)
  • 1922 – Richard Kiley, American actor and singer (d. 1999)
  • 1923 – François Sermon, Belgian footballer (d. 2013)
  • 1924 – Leo Buscaglia, American author and academic (d. 1998)
  • 1924 – Charles Guggenheim, American director and producer (d. 2002)
  • 1925 – Jean Coutu, Canadian actor and director (d. 1999)
  • 1926 – John Fowles, English novelist (d. 2005)
  • 1926 – Beni Montresor, Italian director, set designer, author, and illustrator (d. 2001)
  • 1926 – Rocco Petrone, American colonel and engineer (d. 2006)
  • 1927 – Cesar Chavez, American labor union leader and activist (d. 1993)
  • 1927 – William Daniels, American actor
  • 1927 – Eduardo Martinez Somalo, Spanish cardinal
  • 1927 – Vladimir Ilyushin, Russian pilot (d. 2010)
  • 1927 – Elmer Diedtrich, American businessman and politician (d. 2013)
  • 1927 – Bud MacPherson, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1988)
  • 1928 – Lefty Frizzell, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1975)
  • 1928 – Gordie Howe, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2016)
  • 1929 – Liz Claiborne, Belgian-American fashion designer, founded Liz Claiborne Inc. (d. 2007)
  • 1929 – Bert Fields, American lawyer and author
  • 1930 – Yehuda Nir, Polish-Israeli psychiatrist (d. 2014)
  • 1930 – Jim Mutscheller, American football player and coach (d. 2015)
  • 1931 – Miller Barber, American golfer (d. 2013)
  • 1931 – Tamara Tyshkevich, Belarusian shot putter (d. 1997)
  • 1932 – John Jakes, American author
  • 1932 – Nagisa Oshima, Japanese director and screenwriter (d. 2013)
  • 1933 – Anita Carter, American singer-songwriter and bassist (d. 1999)
  • 1933 – Nichita Stănescu, Romanian poet (d. 1983)
  • 1934 – Richard Chamberlain, American actor
  • 1934 – Shirley Jones, American actress and singer
  • 1934 – John D. Loudermilk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2016)
  • 1934 – Carlo Rubbia, Italian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1934 – Kamala Surayya, Indian poet and author (d. 2009)
  • 1935 – Herb Alpert, American singer-songwriter, trumpet player, and producer
  • 1935 – Judith Rossner, American author (d. 2005)
  • 1936 – Marge Piercy, American poet and novelist
  • 1936 – Bob Pulford, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1938 – Patrick Bateson, English biologist and academic
  • 1938 – Sheila Dikshit, Indian politician, 22nd Governor of Kerala
  • 1938 – Antje Gleichfeld, German runner
  • 1938 – Bill Hicke, Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and manager (d. 2005)
  • 1938 – Tõnno Lepmets, Estonian basketball player (d. 2005)
  • 1938 – Arthur B. Rubinstein, American pianist, composer, and conductor
  • 1938 – David Steel, Scottish academic and politician
  • 1939 – Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Georgian anthropologist and politician, 1st President of Georgia (d. 1993)
  • 1939 – Israel Horovitz, American actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1939 – Walker David Miller, American lawyer and judge (d. 2013)
  • 1939 – Volker Schlöndorff, German director and producer
  • 1939 – Karl-Heinz Schnellinger, German footballer
  • 1940 – Brian Ackland-Snow, English production designer and art director (d. 2013)
  • 1940 – Barney Frank, American lawyer and politician
  • 1940 – Patrick Leahy, American lawyer and politician
  • 1941 – Franco Bonvicini, Italian author and illustrator (d. 1995)
  • 1941 – Faith Leech, Australian swimmer (d. 2013)
  • 1942 – Ulla Hoffmann, Swedish politician
  • 1942 – Hugh McCracken, American guitarist and producer (d. 2013)
  • 1942 – Michael Savage, American radio host and author
  • 1943 – Roy Andersson, Swedish director and screenwriter
  • 1943 – Deirdre Clancy, English costume designer
  • 1943 – Christopher Walken, American actor
  • 1944 – Pascal Danel, French singer-songwriter
  • 1944 – Angus King, American politician
  • 1944 – Mick Ralphs, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1945 – Edwin Catmull, American computer scientist and engineer
  • 1945 – Myfanwy Talog, Welsh actress (d. 1995)
  • 1946 – Gonzalo Márquez, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1984)
  • 1946 – Bob Russell, English politician
  • 1947 – Augustin Banyaga, Rwandan-American mathematician and academic
  • 1947 – Wendy Overton, American tennis player
  • 1947 – Kristian Blak, Danish-Faroese pianist, composer, and producer
  • 1947 – Don Foster, English academic and politician
  • 1947 – César Gaviria, Colombian economist and politician, 36th President of Colombia
  • 1947 – Eliyahu M. Goldratt, Israeli physicist and economist (d. 2011)
  • 1948 – Gary Doer, Canadian politician and diplomat, 20th Premier of Manitoba
  • 1948 – Al Gore, American soldier and politician, 45th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1948 – Rhea Perlman, American actress
  • 1948 – Gustaaf Van Cauter, Belgian cyclist
  • 1949 – Gilles Gilbert, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1950 – András Adorján, Hungarian chess player and author
  • 1950 – Ed Marinaro, American football player and actor
  • 1950 – Sandra Morgen, American anthropologist and academic
  • 1953 – Dennis Kamakahi, American guitarist and composer (d. 2014)
  • 1954 – Laima Vaikule, Latvian actress, singer, director, and choreographer
  • 1955 – Robert Vance, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1955 – Svetozar Marović, President of Serbia and Montenegro
  • 1955 – Angus Young, Scottish-Australian guitarist and songwriter
  • 1957 – Alan Duncan, English businessman and politician, Shadow Leader of the House of Commons
  • 1957 – Terry Klassen, Canadian voice actor, writer and voice director
  • 1959 – Markus Hediger, Swiss poet and translator
  • 1961 – Ron Brown, American sprinter and football player
  • 1961 – Howard Gordon, American screenwriter and producer
  • 1962 – Olli Rehn, Finnish footballer and politician
  • 1964 – Mark Hoban, English accountant and politician
  • 1965 – Tom Barrasso, American ice hockey player and coach
  • 1965 – Patty Fendick, American tennis player and coach
  • 1965 – Jean-Christophe Lafaille, French mountaineer (d. 2006)
  • 1965 – William McNamara, American actor and producer
  • 1965 – Steven T. Seagle, American author and screenwriter
  • 1966 – Roger Black, English runner and journalist
  • 1966 – Nick Firestone, American race car driver
  • 1968 – Kimmo Kinnunen, Finnish javelin thrower
  • 1968 – J. R. Reid, American basketball player and coach
  • 1969 – Nyamko Sabuni, Burundian-Swedish politician
  • 1969 – Steve Smith, American basketball player and sportscaster
  • 1970 – Alenka Bratušek, Slovenian politician, 7th Prime Minister of Slovenia
  • 1970 – Samantha Brown, American television host
  • 1970 – Damon Herriman, Australian actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1970 – Patrick Lachman, American singer and guitarist
  • 1971 – Demetris Assiotis, Cypriot footballer
  • 1971 – Martin Atkinson, English footballer and referee
  • 1971 – Pavel Bure, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1971 – Paul Grayson, English cricketer
  • 1971 – Craig McCracken, American animator, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1971 – Ewan McGregor, Scottish actor
  • 1972 – Alejandro Amenábar, Chilean-Spanish director and screenwriter
  • 1972 – Andrew Bowen, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1972 – Luca Gentili, Italian footballer and coach
  • 1972 – Hristos Polihroniou, Greek hammer thrower
  • 1972 – Evan Williams, American businessman, co-founded Twitter and Pyra Labs
  • 1973 – Christopher Hampson, English ballet dancer and choreographer
  • 1974 – Benjamin Eicher, German director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1974 – Stefan Olsdal, Swedish bass player
  • 1974 – Jani Sievinen, Finnish swimmer
  • 1975 – Adam Green, American director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1975 – Nathan Grey, Australian rugby player and coach
  • 1975 – Cameron Murray, Scottish rugby player
  • 1975 – Ryan Rupe, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Howard Frier, American basketball player
  • 1976 – Igors Sļesarčuks, Latvian-Russian footballer
  • 1976 – Graeme Smith, Scottish swimmer
  • 1977 – Toshiya, Japanese bass player, songwriter, and producer
  • 1977 – Rich Clementi, American mixed martial artist
  • 1977 – Garth Tander, Australian race car driver
  • 1978 – Michael Clark, Australian cricketer and footballer
  • 1978 – Stephen Clemence, English footballer and coach
  • 1978 – Jarrod Cooper, American football player
  • 1978 – Jérôme Rothen, French footballer
  • 1979 – Omri Afek, Israeli footballer
  • 1979 – Euan Burton, Scottish martial artist and coach
  • 1979 – Alexis Ferrero, Argentinian footballer
  • 1979 – Josh Kinney, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Charlie Manning, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Danny Invincibile, Australian footballer
  • 1979 – Jonna Mendes, American skier
  • 1980 – Martin Albrechtsen, Danish footballer
  • 1980 – Karolina Lassbo, Swedish lawyer and blogger
  • 1980 – Matias Concha, Swedish footballer
  • 1980 – Riccardo Corallo, Italian footballer
  • 1980 – Dean Clark, English footballer
  • 1980 – Kate Micucci, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actress
  • 1980 – Michael Ryder, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1980 – Maaya Sakamoto, Japanese singer-songwriter and actress
  • 1980 – Chien-Ming Wang, Taiwanese baseball player
  • 1981 – Ryan Bingham, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1981 – Thomas Chatelle, Belgian footballer
  • 1981 – Pa Dembo Touray, Gambian footballer
  • 1981 – Maarten van der Weijden, Dutch swimmer
  • 1982 – Bam Childress, American football player
  • 1982 – Audrey Kawasaki, American painter
  • 1983 – Hashim Amla, South African cricketer
  • 1983 – Thierry Issiémou, Gabonese footballer
  • 1983 – Jeff Mathis, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Vlasios Maras, Greek gymnast
  • 1983 – Nigel Plum, Australian rugby player
  • 1984 – Jack Antonoff, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1984 – Dario Bova, Italian footballer
  • 1984 – David Clarkson, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1984 – James Jones, American football player
  • 1984 – Martins Dukurs, Latvian sled racer
  • 1984 – Kaie Kand, Estonian heptathlete
  • 1984 – Alberto Junior Rodríguez, Peruvian footballer
  • 1984 – Ed Williamson, English rugby player
  • 1985 – Steve Bernier, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1985 – Jo-Lonn Dunbar, American football player
  • 1985 – Jesper Hansen, Danish footballer
  • 1985 – Ivan Mishyn, Ukrainian race car driver
  • 1985 – Kory Sheets, American football player
  • 1985 – Jalmar Sjöberg, Swedish wrestler
  • 1986 – Matthew Collins, Welsh footballer
  • 1986 – Andreas Dober, Austrian footballer
  • 1986 – James King, Scottish rugby player
  • 1986 – Paulo Machado, Portuguese footballer
  • 1987 – Nordin Amrabat, Dutch footballer
  • 1987 – Hugo Ayala, Mexican footballer
  • 1987 – Vojislava Lukić, Serbian tennis player
  • 1987 – Wang Yue, Chinese chess player
  • 1987 – Bozhidar Mitrev, Bulgarian footballer
  • 1987 – Amaury Bischoff, Portuguese footballer
  • 1987 – Justin Braun, American soccer player
  • 1987 – Carl Dickinson, English footballer
  • 1987 – Humpy Koneru, Indian chess player
  • 1987 – Eros Pisano, Italian footballer
  • 1987 – Aridane Santana, Spanish footballer
  • 1987 – Kirill Starkov, Danish ice hockey player
  • 1987 – Winston Venable, American football player
  • 1987 – Nelli Zhiganshina, Russian figure skater
  • 1988 – Thomas De Corte, Belgian footballer
  • 1988 – Dorin Dickerson, American football player
  • 1988 – DeAndre Liggins, American basketball player
  • 1989 – Alberto Martín Romo García Adámez, Spanish footballer
  • 1989 – Alfredo Marte, Dominican baseball player
  • 1989 – Josmil Pinto, Venezuelan baseball player
  • 1989 – Nejc Vidmar, Slovenian footballer
  • 1989 – Liu Zige, Chinese swimmer
  • 1990 – George Iloka, American football player
  • 1990 – Sandra Roma, Swedish tennis player
  • 1991 – Milan Milanović, Serbian footballer
  • 1991 – Lukas Rotpuller, Austrian footballer
  • 1991 – Jan Šebek, Czech footballer
  • 1991 – Rodney Sneijder, Dutch footballer
  • 1992 – Stijn de Looijer, Dutch footballer
  • 1992 – Henri Laaksonen, Swiss-Finnish tennis player
  • 1992 – Beatričė Rožinskaitė, Lithuanian figure skater
  • 1992 – Adam Zampa, Australian cricketer
  • 1993 – Jonatan Isenia, Dutch baseball player
  • 1993 – Mikael Ishak, Swedish footballer
  • 1998 – Valeria Gorlats, Estonian tennis player
  • 1998 – Jakob Chychrun, American-born Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1998 – Anna Seidel, German short track speed skater

 

 

 

  • Deaths on March 31
  • 528 – Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei, emperor of Northern Wei (b. 510)
  • 1251 – William of Modena, Bishop of Modena
  • 1340 – Ivan I of Moscow (b. 1288)
  • 1547 – Francis I of France (b. 1494)
  • 1567 – Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1504)
  • 1621 – Philip III of Spain (b. 1578)
  • 1631 – John Donne, English lawyer and poet (b. 1572)
  • 1703 – Johann Christoph Bach, German organist and composer (b. 1642)
  • 1723 – Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, English soldier and politician, 14th Colonial Governor of New York (b. 1661)
  • 1741 – Pieter Burman the Elder, Dutch scholar and author (b. 1668)
  • 1797 – Olaudah Equiano, Nigerian merchant, author, and activist (b.1745)
  • 1837 – John Constable, English painter and educator (b. 1776)
  • 1850 – John C. Calhoun, American lawyer and politician, 7th Vice President of the United States (b. 1782)
  • 1855 – Charlotte Brontë, English novelist and poet (b. 1816)
  • 1877 – Antoine Augustin Cournot, French mathematician and philosopher (b. 1801)
  • 1880 – Henryk Wieniawski, Polish violinist and composer (b. 1835)
  • 1885 – Franz Abt, German composer and conductor (b. 1819)
  • 1913 – J. P. Morgan, American banker and financier (b. 1837)
  • 1915 – Wyndham Halswelle, English-Scottish runner and captain (b. 1882)
  • 1917 – Emil von Behring, German physiologist and immunologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1924 – George Charles Haité, English painter and illustrator (b. 1855)
  • 1930 – Ludwig Schüler, German politician, Mayor of Marburg (b. 1836)
  • 1931 – Knute Rockne, American football player and coach (b. 1888)
  • 1935 – Georges V. Matchabelli, Georgian-American businessman and diplomat, founded Prince Matchabelli perfume (b. 1885)
  • 1939 – Ioannis Tsangaridis, Greek general (b. 1887)
  • 1944 – Mineichi Koga, Japanese admiral (b. 1885)
  • 1945 – Frank Findlay, New Zealand banker and politician (b. 1884)
  • 1945 – Hans Fischer, German chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1881)
  • 1950 – Robert Natus, Estonian architect (b. 1890)
  • 1952 – Wallace H. White, Jr., American lawyer and politician (b. 1877)
  • 1956 – Ralph DePalma, Italian-American race car driver and actor (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – Grover Lowdermilk, American baseball player (b. 1885)
  • 1975 – Percy Alliss, English golfer (b. 1897)
  • 1976 – Paul Strand, American photographer and director (b. 1890)
  • 1978 – Charles Herbert Best, American-Canadian physiologist and biochemist, co-discovered Insulin (b. 1899)
  • 1980 – Vladimír Holan, Czech poet and author (b. 1905)
  • 1980 – Jesse Owens, American sprinter and long jumper (b. 1913)
  • 1981 – Enid Bagnold, English author and playwright (b. 1889)
  • 1983 – Christina Stead, Australian author and academic (b. 1902)
  • 1988 – William McMahon, Australian lawyer and politician, 20th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1908)
  • 1993 – Brandon Lee, American actor and martial artist (b. 1965)
  • 1993 – Mitchell Parish, Lithuanian-American songwriter (b. 1900)
  • 1995 – Selena, American singer-songwriter (b. 1971)
  • 1996 – Dante Giacosa, Italian automobile designer and engineer (b. 1905)
  • 1996 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1958)
  • 1998 – Bella Abzug, American lawyer, activist, and politician (b. 1920)
  • 1998 – Tim Flock, American race car driver (b. 1924)
  • 1998 – Joel Ryce-Menuhin, American pianist (b. 1933)
  • 1999 – Yuri Knorozov, Russian linguist and ethnographer (b. 1922)
  • 2000 – Giani Chet Singh, Indian scholar (b. 1902)
  • 2001 – David Rocastle, English footballer (b. 1967)
  • 2001 – Clifford Shull, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1915)
  • 2002 – Barry Took, English comedian, actor, and screenwriter (b. 1928)
  • 2002 – Moturu Udayam, Indian activist and politician (b. 1924)
  • 2003 – Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, English-Canadian mathematician and academic (b. 1907)
  • 2003 – Anne Gwynne, American actress (b. 1918)
  • 2003 – Tommy Seebach, Danish singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (b. 1949)
  • 2004 – Scott Helvenston, American soldier (b. 1965)
  • 2005 – Stanley J. Korsmeyer, American oncologist and academic (b. 1951)
  • 2005 – Justiniano Montano, Filipino lawyer and politician (b. 1905)
  • 2005 – Frank Perdue, American businessman (b. 1920)
  • 2006 – Jackie McLean, American saxophonist and composer (b. 1931)
  • 2007 – Paul Watzlawick, Austrian-American psychologist and philosopher (b. 1921)
  • 2008 – Jules Dassin, American director, producer, screenwriter, and actor (b. 1911)
  • 2008 – Bill Keightley, American equipment manager (b. 1926)
  • 2009 – Raúl Alfonsín, Argentinian lawyer and politician, 46th President of Argentina (b. 1927)
  • 2009 – Choor Singh, Indian-Singaporean lawyer and judge (b. 1911)
  • 2010 – Syed Qasim Mahmood, Pakistani journalist, lexicographer, and author (b. 1928)
  • 2011 – Tony Barrell, English-Australian journalist and broadcaster (b. 1940)
  • 2011 – Gil Clancy, American boxer and trainer (b. 1922)
  • 2011 – Alan Fitzgerald, Australian journalist and author (b. 1935)
  • 2011 – Oddvar Hansen, Norwegian footballer and coach (b. 1921)
  • 2011 – Ishbel MacAskill, Scottish singer and actress (b. 1941)
  • 2011 – Henry Taub, American businessman and philanthropist (b. 1927)
  • 2012 – Judith Adams, New Zealand-Australian nurse and politician (b. 1943)
  • 2012 – Dale R. Corson, American physicist and academic (b. 1914)
  • 2012 – Bernard O. Gruenke, American stained glass artist (b. 1914)
  • 2012 – Jerry Lynch, American baseball player (b. 1930)
  • 2012 – Alberto Sughi, Italian painter (b. 1928)
  • 2012 – Halbert White, American economist and academic (b. 1950)
  • 2013 – Charles Amarin Brand, French archbishop (b. 1920)
  • 2013 – Ernie Bridge, Australian singer and politician (b. 1936)
  • 2013 – Helena Carroll, Scottish-American actress (b. 1928)
  • 2013 – Bob Clarke, American illustrator (b. 1926)
  • 2013 – Ahmad Sayyed Javadi, Iranian lawyer and politician, Iranian Minister of Interior (b. 1917)
  • 2013 – Dmitri Uchaykin, Russian ice hockey player (b. 1980)
  • 2014 – Gonzalo Anes, Spanish economist, historian, and academic (b. 1931)
  • 2014 – Charles Keating, American lawyer, businessman, and criminal (b. 1923)
  • 2014 – Roger Somville, Belgian painter (b. 1923)
  • 2015 – Betty Churcher, Australian painter, historian, and curator (b. 1931)
  • 2015 – Cocoa Fujiwara, Japanese author and illustrator (b. 1983)
  • 2015 – Carlos Gaviria Díaz, Colombian lawyer and politician (b. 1937)
  • 2015 – Riccardo Ingram, American baseball player and coach (b. 1966)
  • 2015 – Dalibor Vesely, Czech-English historian, author, and academic (b. 1934)
  • 2016 – Ronnie Corbett, Scottish comedian, actor and screenwriter (b. 1930)
  • 2016 – Hans-Dietrich Genscher, German politician (b. 1927)
  • 2016 – Zaha Hadid, Iraqi-born English architect and academic, designed the Bridge Pavilion (b. 1950)
  • 2016 – Imre Kertész, Hungarian author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1929)
  • 2016 – Denise Robertson, British writer and television broadcaster (b. 1932)

 

 

 

  • Holidays and observances on March 31
  • Christian feast day
    • Abdas of Susa
    • Acathius of Melitene (Eastern Orthodox Church)
    • Anesius and companions
    • Benjamin
    • Balbina
    • John Donne (Anglican Communion, Lutheran)
    • March 31 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Cesar Chavez Day (United States)
  • Culture Day (Public holidays in the Federated States of Micronesia)
  • Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis (Azerbaijan)
  • Freedom Day (Malta)
  • International Transgender Day of Visibility
  • King Nangklao Memorial Day (Thailand)
  • National Backup Day (United States)
  • Thomas Mundy Peterson Day (New Jersey, United States)
  • Transfer Day (US Virgin Islands)
March 31
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