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Hammurabi

  • Who is Hammurabi? Facts about hammurabi and Babylonian Empire:
  • Hammurabi was the sixth king of Babylon (BC 1793 – 1750 BC). Hammurabi conquered the Sumerians and Akkadians, becoming the first king of the Babylonian Empire. Thus, Babylon established hegemony on Mesopotamia. It is a misconception that many people are given the title of the first legislator according to their thinking. The Hammurabi laws are rather the first reformative laws of progress than the first laws.

 

  • Hammurabi, who was the sixth king of the city state of Babylon built on the banks of the river Euphrates on the border of Iraq today, ruled his territory between 1792 and 1750 BC. The Babylonian empire, which he founded in 1770 BC, reached Ninova in the north between the Euphrates and Dicle rivers.

 

    Hammurabi

  • Neighbors fought with Larsa, Mari, and Assur for 30 years and created an empire extending from the Persian Gulf to Diyarbakir and Zagros to the western deserts. He ruled the sovereign lands with a central system. He set up official correspondence. In addition, the province brought the postal organization established in Iran (Pers) to its country and created the police organization and the first municipal system in its power. The police organization provided internal security for the city, promptly intervening and catching criminals if there was an uprising or crime. These arrested criminals were punished according to their own 282-laws in the courts created, but in general these punishments were very heavy. Hammurabi himself was the mayor. The municipal system that we built looked like today, and the municipality looked after the city’s organization, repair and clean-up. Establishment of the post office; City, neighborhood neighborhood street street and house numbers. Thus, a mail was requested that the correct adrese reached this way. Thanks to the archaeological finds made on this system, it was first made sure that it was built during the time of Hammurabi. Hammurabi has given much importance to art and architecture, especially to architectural matters. The largest of these is the famous Tower of Babel and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. During his rule he godified himself and proclaimed himself “the god of the kings“. He established an absolute monarchy in which men could become heirs, and at this time Marduk, the god of the Babylonian country, became one of the highest gods of the Sumerian-Akkadian communities.

 

  • The laws in force in the context of the system, Hammurabi Laws, represented the laws of world history. These inscriptions, written on stone columns in 282 items, were discovered by French researchers in 1901-1902 and moved to the Louvre, with the Ottoman Empire collapsing. According to these laws; The differences between slaves and free people are mentioned, and the laws applied to certain societies such as marriage, especially in the case of non-free people (theft if they steal, etc.) are still applied in some societies.

 

  • Code of Hammurabi Laws
  • The Hammurabi laws are one of the oldest and best preserved written laws of history that appeared in Mesopotamia around 1760 BC. Among the collections of the laws collected before this period are the Ur book of Ur-Nammu (2050 BC), the Book of Satisfaction (1930 BC), and the book of law of Lipite-Ishar (1870 BC) of Isin.

 

  • Decisions of the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1728 – 1686 BC) on various issues were written in the Akatian language on a stone planted in the Temple of Esagila built in the name of Marduk, the guardian god of Babylon. Hammurabi told him that the sun god was the one who burned these laws. Therefore, the law was also a word of God.

 

 

 

 

 

  • The stele, written by archaeologist Jean Vincent Scheil in 1901 in Susa, in Elam (today Huzistan, Iran), and in Hammurabi Laws carried to France, is exhibited at the Louvre Museum. The laws written on a cylindrical stone of about two meters on a nailhead are exactly 282 items, but 33 of these materials (items 66-99) are unreadable at this time. Because number 13 is considered ominous, article 13 is not written.

 

  • It is exhibited at Paris Louvre.

 

  • Some items on code of hammurabi laws:
  • If a thief enters a house by piercing the wall, he will be punished with death and buried before that hole.
  • When a fire comes out of a house and a person comes out to put out the fire there, he takes a look at the property of the owner’s owner and takes the property of the owner’s owner.
  • If a man wants to leave a wife who gives her a child, or a woman who gives her a child, then she gives her dowry back to his wife and gives them the right to use some of the fields, the garden and some of the property to look after her children. When he enlarges his children, he gets a piece of what is given to the children and a piece that is equal to his son. Then he can marry the man of the heart.
  • A man will take a woman, and if she will give her a servant, and she will look after her children; However, if the man wants to take another woman it is not allowed; This man can not take a second woman.
  • If a man takes a child for adoption and gives him a name as his son, and feeds and grows it, the grown-up child can not be asked again.
  • If a man acts to restrict the freedom of another person, the same punishment is given to him.
  • If a person steals, it is cut off, rape is a death sentence or a manage.
  • If a person injures the tooth of a person in the same class as himself, the tooth is pulled
  • If a person injures the teeth of a person in a lower class than himself / herself, 166 gr. It’s silver.
  • The son who beats his father is cut off by two hands.
  • The eye of a man’s eye is removed.
  • If you can not do it, you will be sentenced to death.
  • He is punished with death in a temple or in the monarch’s treasure.

 

  • The shortcoming of the Hammurabi Laws (life versus life) applies only to slaves. According to this Criminal Law, The free man gives compensation as punishment, and the slave cares the eye. Robbery, palace or temple robbing, stealing a slave belonging to someone, keeping a fleeing slave, adultery, etc. Crimes are punished with death. A Family Law based on single marriage; There is a Law of Inheritance which divides property and gives superiority to person’s law.

 

  • Legislation is regulated by the concern of the protection of property rights of landowners, priests, merchants and moneylenders, especially over slaves.
Hammurabi
Author: wik Date: 11:25 am
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