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Cancer

  • What does cancer mean?
  • Cancer is the growth and proliferation of damage-ending cells in the cells in an uncontrolled or abnormal manner. Even though there are about 10,000 mutations in our body (DNA) a day, our immunology system scours our bodies every millisecond and destroys cancerous cells. The healthy body cells have the ability to divide. They use these abilities to regenerate dead cells and repair injured tissues. But their abilities are limited. They can not be broken forever. Throughout its life, every cell has a certain number of divisibility. A healthy cell has the ability to know when and where it can be divided

 

  • However, the cancer cells, this conscious loser, begin to divide uncontrollably and reproduce. Cancer cells accumulate to form tumors (tumors), tumors can squeeze normal tissues, infiltrate or destroy them. If the cancer cells are separated from the tumor, they may go to other parts of the body through blood or lymph circulation. In places where they grow, they form tumor colonies and continue to grow. The spread of cancer to other parts of the body in this way is called metastasis.

 

  • Cancers are classified according to their appearing appearance under the organ and the microscope. Different types of cancer grow at different rates, show different spreading patterns, and respond to different treatments. For this reason, in the treatment of cancer patients, different treatments are applied according to the existing cancer type. Not every cancer has the same structure.

 

  • Only a very small number of mutated cells in the body cause cancer. There are many reasons for this:
  • Cells that show mutation are less able to survive than normal cells. That’s why they die.
  • Most of the mutated cells have a normal regenerative control regimen (“Tumor Suppressor Genes“) that prevents them from overgrowing even in the majority of the cells. So few of the mutant cells that can survive turn into cancerous cells.
  • Often, these cells carrying cancerous potential are destroyed by the body’s immune system before they grow and become cancerous.

 

  • This event is explained as follows:
  • Most mutant cells form abnormal proteins in themselves because of their altered genes. These abnormal proteins stimulate the immune system of the body, causing the formation of antibodies or the formation of lymphocytes that are susceptible to the cancerous cell, thereby destroying the cancerous cell. A fact that supports this phenomenon is the fivefold increase in cancer risk in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment due to organ transplantation.

 

  • Conditions that impair the effectiveness of the immune system are known as cancer predisposing factors. These cells, which have not been destroyed by the immune system, reproduce uncontrollably and occupy the tissue they are in. They are not only limited to that tissue but also spread to neighboring tissues (invasion). They can also be transported to unrelated areas of the body through blood and lymph circulation (metastasis).

 

  • The most important feature of the area, which is the beginning of cancer, is that the tissue is intricate to the surrounding tissues. Benign tumors usually have significant borders. However, malignant tumors are firmly adhered to the surrounding tissue with no boundaries. In the first stages they are usually painless.

 

  • Cancer is named according to the tissue from which it originated.
  • Cancer cells; Reaching the surrounding tissues and spreading to the other side of the body via blood circulation, lymphatic system or body cavities and surfaces. It’s called metastasis.
  • Malignant tumors growing uncontrollably in our body are called cancer. Cancers are divided into two parts: benign and malignant. Malignant tumors display metastasis to other tissues and organs.

 

  • Cancer History
  • Cancer, as it was centuries ago, continues to exist today and threatens mankind more than it is in the past. Definitions of malign tumors are first found in Egyptian papyrus, Babylon nail writer tablets and ancient Indian writings. In the Ebers Papyrus (15th century BC) it is stated that tumor treatment may be lethal.
  • It is often impossible to determine what types of tumors are present in the Greek medical records of the antiquity and Galen’s work, although there are many cases of cancer.
  • It can be seen that the term cancer was first used by Hippocrates (460-377 BC) for new healing constructs. Hippocrates named “carcinos” or “carcinomas” and Galen (2nd century AD) were named “cancer” because of the appearance of a crab-like appearance, growing on the body surface and red, warm, painful, .
  • According to another interpretation, this naming is due to the fact that the cancer pain resembles a rodent-like pain that spreads from the periphery to the periphery, formed by crab bite. In Greek medicine, abnormal pathological growth called “praeter naturam” was called a tumor.
  • In this period, only malign tumors of epithelial origin appear to be referred to as cancer, and the cause is related to the imbalance between body fluids, such as those in other diseases. Galen has been classified into three groups: tumors, natural (uterine development in case of pregnancy), transient (hypertrophy) and contagious (malignant tumors).
  • In the direction of the theory of humoral pathology starting with Hippocrates and continuing with Galen, black bile was responsible for the formation of the tumor. Dietary recommendations to protect against cancer have kept up to the 18th century. In the treatment, metallic salts (copper, lead, sulfur, arsenic etc.) used in the treatment of ulcers were also used. Apart from these, animal (frog, dog serum, fish, bird) and herbal (violet leaf and molasses) drugs are also known to treat cancer.
  • Surgery by pathologists who did not know the pathology, anatomy, and radical surgical techniques failed with catheterization or knife removal.
  • Along with the Renaissance, there have been new developments in the definition of cancer in European medicine. Ambroise Paré (1510- 1590), the great surgeon of this period, described malignant tumors as “overgrowth of the flesh of the elements from which they originate,” and stated that females had more cancer and breast cancers were spread through subcutaneous ganglia.
  • The first scientific, microscopic examination of cancer was made by Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694). Many types of cancer known today have identified Morgagni (1682-1771) and distinguished primary tumors from secondary tumors.
  • Along with seventeenth-century surgeons, cancer has become a phenomenon that should not be touched. The term hematology was first used by Thomas Schwenke in 1743. The identification of blood cells took place in the late 17th and 18th centuries. Erythrocytes were identified by Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) in 1674, leukocytes by Joseph Lieutaud (1703-1780) in 1749, and lymphocytes by William Hewson (1739-1774) in 1774.
  • Marie François Xavier Bichat (1771-1802) used the phrase “weave knitting like normal braids” for malign tumors while setting the bases of the general pathological anatomy at the beginning of the nineteenth century and described the parenchyma and strumus in the tumoral structure.
  • The presence of the lymphatic system in the eighteenth century caused the lymph fluid to be held responsible for the collection of tumors. So with John Hunter, removal of the lymph glands began to be applied in the treatment of cancer. Laönnec (1781-1826), who made the anatomical division of tumors for the first time, gave the name “homologous” to tumors resembling the normal structure of the organism, and “heterologous” to the different ones.
  • The results of the scientists mentioned in the periods when microscopy is not used yet are quite surprising. The microscope, which was found by Zaharias Jansen in 1590, completed its historical development by Kepler in 1611, Chistiaan Huygens in 1684 and later Ernst Abbe (1804-1903), but started to be used by medical practitioners in the early 19th century and few physicians.
  • It was believed that until this turn, the disease had come to a conclusion that the hardness and elasticity of the hard organs had deteriorated (solitary pathology) or the disequilibrium between the body fluids (humoral pathology). There has not yet been a thought that blood cells infiltrating a neoplastic proliferation-promoting bone marrow and other tissues can lead to leukemia. Based on humoral pathology, Broussai (1771-1838) suggested that cancer was the result of the accumulation of albumin in the braids. Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858) was the first scientist to study the pathological anatomy by microscopy and showed Bichat’s parenchyma and strumus.
  • At the beginning of the nineteenth century, great steps were taken in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as in research that provided important information on cancer formation. “What are the diagnostic features of cancer?“, “What are the causes of cancer?“, “Cancer is a primary disease,” or “What are the causes of cancer?” In 1802 by the Society for Investigating the Nature and Cure of Cancer Are they developing from diseases? “,” Is cancer inherited?

 

  • Discussions on Cancer Etiology After centuries of morphological and histological investigations for the identification of cancer, discussions about the etiology of the disease have been debated. We can list these arguments in the following way:
  • 1. First, in 1771 Percival Pott’s London scavenger hurricane high scrotum and skin cancer caused the appearance of cancer caused by the incidence of dry skin and cancer.
  • 2. Conheim, in 1875, described the cancer etiology according to embryonic theory. According to this theory, some cell groups in the embryo do not complete their normal development and remain as embryonal seeds. They multiply rapidly with the effect of internal and external stimuli, forming a cancer cell without differentiation.
  • 3. According to Ribbert, malignant tumors are formed by the proliferation of a group of cells that are innately or subsequently regenerating.
  • 4. According to Virchow’s theory of cellulite irrigation, cancer is not a primary disease, but some cells that survive after degenerative and regenerative changes following chronic irritation form separate cell groups on their own.
  • 5. As a result of the developments in the field of bacteriology, cancer infectious diseases were tried to be put into the group. First, in 1903, Borrel came up with the idea that cancer might have a viral origin.
  • In 1909, Ellerman and Bank showed that leucemin was contagious among chickens. Dr. Klara Fonti, the cancer of the cause of the virus in the way of thinking that the virus in 1952, a cancer patient with cancer breast cancer from the secret of his own breast was formed by cancer.
  • Dr. Stanley stated that in 1956, every human being had cancer virus, but the change that occurred in the virus hormones for cancer formation should be activated for reasons such as chemical substances, radiation, wrong nutrition. Various scientific organizations have experimented with how these viruses, which settled in the cells and acted as opportunities, reacted again.
  • From the American Cancer Research Institute. Wallace Rowe showed that when injecting bromine also exyuridine, which causes cancer in a mouse strain that is very sensitive to leukemia, cells start to change and produce leukemia-causing viruses. The virus, believed to cause some types of cancer in the human body, is at the Anderson Hospital Tumor Institute. Priori and Dr. Dmochowski’s team was separated for the first time in the test tube as a result of the work of the team. Dr. Ontario Cancer Institute in Canada. Mak and Dr. In 1974, Hawatson found a virus that caused leukemia in person.
  • 6. According to Warburg’s biochemical theory, the cause of cancer is not a cell change or an external agent, but a metabolic disorder. In the 1950s, the levels of zinc and glutamic acid in the cancer cells were found to be normally high.
  • 7. Maude Slye, combining cancerous rats with each other to obtain cancerous offspring, would reveal the genetic factor in cancer formation.
  • 8. Hydrocarbons as a carcinogenic substance in tobacco smoke, isolation in 1950, showing that oral and esophagus cancers are high in Indian men who break betel (pepper tree), finding that smoking in Japan is a relationship between smoked fish and stomach cancer and that living habits of a person Affected.
  • 9. The change in the incidence of cancer among different races and societies led to the idea that environmental factors were effective in cancer formation. For example, liver cancer is found in South Africa and India, and cancer in the goose is more common in Europe and North America. According to the results of the study in twenty-four countries, breast cancer is more prevalent in England and Denmark and less in Japan.
  • 10. The increase in the incidence of cancer with the increase in age indicates a degenerative process accompanying the aging of the organism. The prolongation of the average life expectancy and the improvement of the living conditions explain the increase in the incidence of cancer in older ages.

 

 

 

  • Discussions in Cancer Treatment
  • First of all, it is thought that if cancer is actually what it is, how it is formed and developed, treatment is also possible. However, the diversity in cancer etiology was a barrier to reaching definitive results.
  • None of the surgical, radiotherapy and chemotherapy methods used in cancer treatment were considered as the ideal method.
  • It was not possible to make sure that all the cancerous cells were cleared, even if the tumor was removed or destroyed by radiotherapy. Chemotherapy stopped the division of healthy cells as well as cancer cells, and the procedure was damaging to the whole body.
  • Thus, research into the etiology of cancer has led to new searches for the treatment of the disease. In the 1950s, reports began to appear that various plants were effective in the treatment of cancer. It was also thought that the cancer virus could be treated by using a stronger virus (1952).
  • Synthetically produced antibiotic puromycin was shown to be effective on breast cancer in animal experiments (1954). Dr. Pierre Grobon (1959) stated that artificial diabetes mellitus could be used in the treatment of cancer after observing that there is an excess of sugar in cancer cells, that there is not enough sugar in the cells of diabetic patients, and that cancer formation is low in diabetics.
  • Drugs that produce artificial diabetes using alloxane in experimental animals to prevent sugar accumulation in cancer cells. Grobon received positive results. At the beginning of the 1960’s, vaccination studies against cancer began.
  • Dr. Charlotte Friend (1960) stated that she is working on a vaccine that is 80% positive against leukemia with the vaccine she has applied in mice. The first vaccination on humans to protect against cancer was conducted on 120 healthy volunteers aged 60-70 in Sweden in 1961.
  • The most successful result in vaccination studies Rainer Laufs and Dr. In 1975, Hans Steinke was experimented with monkeys. In an experiment on a monkey species that had been diagnosed with lymphoma when they met the virus, the vaccine, Herpes saimiri, which was not found in humans, was injected into the monkeys. Later on, the same number of inoculated and unvaccinated monkeys was left in the virus-containing medium.
  • Unvaccinated monkeys die within 34-51 days after contact with the virus, while the vaccinated monkeys survive. Dr. Voeber (1964) argued that the tumor was prevented from growing at the end of contact with warm water at 43-44 ° C, suggesting that the tumor was damaged from the outset.
  • In 1974, there was news in the Turkish press that was very busy with the public. According to this report, the Doctor claimed that “Ziya Özel” treated the cancer with oleander. This news about the treatment of an important disease such as cancer has attracted a great deal of attention. The press statement of the Turkish National Union of Unions emphasized the negative consequences of unscientific practices.
  • In order to be a medicament for new drugs and methods, it has been announced that it is the scientific and legal responsibility of investigating in the relevant scientific centers, understanding the effect and determining the nature of the treatment, and using a drug or method without these.

 

  • Causes of cancer
  • It is the differentiation of the resultant cell, which is the fault of DNA replication (replication) during the main cause of cancer cell division. There are many factors that are thought to cause DNA replication abnormalities, and these are called predisposing factors. Cell division is done for tissue repair and renewal. All the factors that speed up tissue repair and regeneration can actually be a cancer maker.
  • Ionizing radiation such as X-rays, gamma rays, particle radiation emitted from radioactive materials, and ultraviolet rays are the basis for cancer. Under the influence of these radiation, the ions formed in the tissue cells are highly reactive and cause mutation by breaking the DNA strands. Noise and Radiation pollution, Heavy traffic, Narrow streets, Mega urbanization Ozone and Oxygen contamination.
  • Some chemical substances have high mutation potential. Chemical substances that cause mutation are called carcinogens. Aniline dye derivatives, many chemicals in cigarette smoke, methylmethacrylate, asbestos, silica powders, coal and plaster dust are examples of these. Carcinogens that cause the greatest number of cancers in society today are found in cigarette smoke. Physically irritating substances also cause cancer. The destruction that occurs in the tissues creates new cells instead of cells that have been destroyed by rapid mitosis. The more and faster the mitosis, the greater the risk of mutation. Such physical factors include biting, biting, nevus breakout, playing with scabs, excessive and frequent consumption of some irritating foods.
  • Many families have a strong hereditary tendency to get cancer. This may be due to the fact that several mutations are needed before cancer occurs in many cancer types. Hereditary genomes of these families, particularly susceptible to cancer, have one or more mutated genes. Therefore, there are far fewer additional mutations in such individuals before the cancer begins to grow, which is enough to initiate cancer.

 

  • There is also the effect of viral factors in the formation of cancer.
  • In women, breast, uterus and large intestine cancer are the most common; In men, lung, prostate, stomach, and colon cancers are the most common. 16% of all cancers, 28% of all cancer deaths are caused by lung cancer in 35% of men and 19% of women. Lung cancer is associated with smoking in large measure.

 

  • Places where cancer is seen can be scaled down as shown below
  • Brain and spinal cord% 1
  • Volume 10%
  • Genital regions: 20% in males, 8% in females
  • Breast 14%
  • Digestive system 25%
  • Respiratory tract: 2% for men, 3% for women
  • Liver and gall bladder 3%
  • Other organs 8%

 

  • Other Age-related situations
  • Relative to the progress of technology and medicine, aside from human life and successful human and animal care, which lasts all day, Nature is a last resort in time-dependent or exceptional conditions. Relatives and physicians of a progressive patient do not know the value of the patient’s lifetime and the value expressed for that patient. They can not.
  • Moreover, it is not possible to predict when the spontaneous regression (spontaneous remission) that the cancer disease will show from time to time. In fact, the majority of cancer-related deaths are not caused by the vital organs of cancer; Infection, abnormally low blood cell counts, malnutrition, bed sores.
  • For this reason, relatives and doctors of advanced cancer patients, cancer treatments are bankrupt, and even if they can not be treated for disease, they should continue medical and moral support until the last time. One of the most frustrating problems of cancer patients and their relatives is pain. Pain is sometimes not directly related to cancer, but it occurs when the tumor causes clogging, infection, or nerves.

 

  • Benign and malignant tumors
  • Benign tumors are not cancer. They do not spread to neighboring regions. The boundaries are evident. They do not melt neighboring tissues. These cells are oncogenes (mutations), but it is still possible to predict their origins. They usually do not repeat when they are completely removed.
  • Malignant tumors are called cancer. They spread to neighboring organs and tissues, even when they resemble bone tissue (resorb). The boundaries are uncertain. The cells that make up the malignant tumor are so differentiated that it is impossible to say what their origin is. They also spread through lymph and blood to distant organs.

 

  • Cancer treatment
  • First of all, the immune system of the body is the main role of all diseases in the treatment. Removing the factors that weaken the immune system is the first step of treatment. Since it is impossible to predict how and where cancer cells metastasize, it is desirable for cancer patients to strengthen their immune systems and destroy these spreading cells.
  • Cancer treatment is done by oncologists. There are Oncology Hospitals in many centers. The most common cancer treatments are done in 5 different ways:
  • Surgery (Removing and removing some healthy tissue that carries cancerous tissue and the risk of invasion around it.) In some cases it may be impossible to remove the cancerous tissue by surgical intervention, in which case radiotherapy or chemotherapy is applied.
  • Radiotherapy (radiation) treatment (killing of cancer cells by applying appropriate dose of radiation)
  • Chemotherapy (use of drugs to kill cancer cells)
  • Alternative medicine Pre-medical methods that have not been proven to be reliable and efficacious controlled experiments because they are not empowering the immune system, but are intended to be the main treatment support but open to marginalization.
  • Immunotherapy Immune system cells are used effectively against cancer. For example BCG application in urinary incontinence cancer.

 

  • Alternative preliminary intervention
  • Antimitotic and cortisone ointment and fine tip local injections for small lesions smaller than 3 cm in advance in cancer or cancer of the skin or superficial mucosa, pre-cancerous or Actinic keratosis stages, even though early diagnosis and treatment are important, other individual applications positively evaluated by physicians for fear of radiotherapy or other phobic reasons Acid or base “again” Dichloroacetic acid peeling peeled Good response to oxygen and acid Cancer cells that are not tolerant to acid are accepted by the medical literature to stop progressing carcinoma cases.
  • In addition, cancer cells attack and feed glycose, more stressful and oxygen-free stagnant cells flock to rich, nutrients rich in vitamin C, hot black tea from plastic and foam according to research conducted by Cornell University, hot drinks do not just heat our bodies, Strengthening.
  • Antioxidants in hot drinks protect against diseases such as heart, stroke, cholesterol and cancer. Experts advise that hot chocolate contains four times more antioxidants than black tea, and recommends to drink 1 cup every day, garlic and natural spices, cocoa-oxygen atmosphere and stressed green plants are recommended as environmental factors.
  • In addition, acetic acid injection is also applied to liver carcinomas as a medical surgical intervention. The protective effect of aspirin against cancer formation was first proposed in 1988. Since then, a number of clinical, epidemiological and experimental data have proven the validity of this view. Although antimitotic medicines sometimes cause hair loss, they are recovered after application, and hair loss and chemotherapy are also temporary.

 

  • The most important cause of non-melanoma skin cancers is sunlight. Chemical peeling is very beneficial in actinic injuries. Subclinical malignant lesions are usually associated with skin cancers. Materials and Methods: Between 1999 and 2004, 102 patients were treated for skin cancer. In addition to the surgical treatment of malignant lesions, 48 ​​patients were treated with trichloroacetic acid (35-40%) on the face of 48 patients with overactive actinic damage. The patients were between 51 and 93 years old. The follow-up period is 1-5 years. The efficacy of TCA treatment was assessed pathologically.
  • Results: The second primary skin cancer, were observed in only 3 patients who underwent peeling. After TCA peeling histologically epidermal atrophy, atypical improvement and new subdermal collagen accumulation
Cancer
Author: wik Date: 5:45 pm
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