Art

  • What is the art?
  • Art, in its broadest sense, is understood as the expression of creativity and imagination. Throughout history, ideas about what to call art have changed constantly, and this broad understanding has brought about various restrictions and new definitions over time. Today, the artistic term can be used by many as a very simple and clear concept, and it is a heated debate whether or not art can be defined in academic circles, even if it can be described.
  • The word art is often used in the sense of visual arts. The present use of the word is used in a somewhat broader sense among the people, even though it is close to the word ‘art‘ in English, influenced by western culture. If the words ‘art’ (‘artificial’ = artificial) in English, ‘Kunst‘ (‘künstlich‘ = artificial) in German or ‘art‘ (Arabic origin) in Turkish, Meaning. Art has begun to evolve in this broad sense of the Renaissance, but until recently, the arts of craft and art have continued to be used alternately.
  • In addition, after the Industrial Revolution, a distinction was made between design and art, and in the 1950s and 1960s a third line was drawn, which disputes popular culture and art.

  • Definition of art
  • Basat Form View
  • Clive Bell was influenced by Cezanne in 1914 and wrote that Art is a ‘significant form’ in his book Art (‘Art‘). According to Bell, not all forms come into this class, because the combination of line, shape and color relations is important. This opinion says that the representation does not affect the artistic liking. This view, which defines art in relation to aesthetics, is not as effective as it is today, since it does not include the works of artists who do not produce aesthetic objects in the sense we know as Marcel Duchamp, Andy Warhol, and Joseph Beuys in the 20th century.
  • The Opinion of Art as Expression of Emotions
  • R.G. In his book, The Principles of Art, published in 1938, Collingwood said that art was the creative expression or expression of feelings as the basis. Besides, he made a distinction between art and craft. According to this, while craft is transformed into a final product designed in the direction of a plan, it does not need to distinguish between planning and application between artistic activities, tools and purposes. However, according to this view, art is not the expression of any sensation. This feeling has not been clear until the time it is expressed, and the expression must be a feeling that will cause it to be discovered. This also includes the spectator into your research. Since this theory can not distinguish some activities (such as psychotherapy sessions) that are not regarded as art from art, it can not distinguish between artifacts that are accepted as arts (for example, in the Renaissance period, not the emotions of the artist but the images of religious emotions) And even the failure of all these identification efforts has begun to discuss how correct it is to try to make the art description.
  • Neo-Wittgenstein’s Opinion
  • Morris Weitz’s idea in 1956, based on Wittgenstein’s views and the resistance of things to finding the essence. According to Weitz, theorists such as Fry and Bell, Tolstoy, Croce, and Collingwood have been far from expressing their personal artistic views in their definitions. To summarize Neo-Wittgenstein’s view, art is an open concept and can not be defined. However, according to Weitz, this should not create a philosophical problem because it is possible to make provisions about what can not be art using the family similarity method.
  • Corporate Art Opinion
  • Corporate art theory suggests art can be defined by rejecting the Neo-Wittgenstein view. The idea was originally developed in 1974 by George Dickie.
  • Dickie’s first definition, inspired by Arthur Danto’s ideas in the art world,
  • Artwork: Consciously man is out of hand or his mind. The idea of ​​some parts should be reached by the person or persons who act on behalf of a certain social institution (art world) and be candidates to gain appreciation.

  • Evaluation of art
  • The philosopher Richard Wollheim proposes three approaches to aesthetic evaluation of art:
  • A realistic approach that predicts that an aesthetic quality is an absolute, independent value from a human point of view.
  • An objective approach that claims that an aesthetic quality is an absolute value, but that it depends on a person’s point of view.
  • A relative approach that says that aesthetic quality is not absolute and that it changes according to a person’s point of view.

  • Visual arts
  • Drawing:
  • The drawing is an image rendering tool using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. Generally, it involves making a mark on the surface by applying pressure from an instrument or by moving a tool on a surface. Graphite pencils, pencils, ink, ink brush, wax colored pencils, pencil dyes, charcoal, pastels and markers There are also digital devices that can simulate the impressiveness of these.
  • The basic techniques used in the drawing are line drawing, scanning, cross scanning, random scanning, scribing, blending and blending. An artist who shows perfection in drawing is referred to as drafting, draft interviewer, or drafting officer.
  • The drawing can also be used to create illustrations, comics and animations.
  • Picture:
  • Picture; Is a technique of painting lines and colors on a surface such as a canvas, wood panel or wall using almost any kind of paint material on any surface. However, when used in an artistic sense, it means using this activity together with drawing, composition and other aesthetic concerns to reveal the expression and conceptual intent of the practitioner. The painting is also used to express spiritual motives and thoughts; The works in this type of painting extend from paintings showing mythological figures on ceramic to human body drawings.
  • Just as music is based on sound, color is the essence of the picture. Color can be considered subjective, but has observable psychological effects. However, these may differ from one culture to another. Black represents mourning in Europe, but elsewhere it can also be white. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky and Newton, print their own color theories. What’s more, when people use language to express colors, it is actually an abstract for the only equivalent of color. For example, the word “red” can encompass a wide range of variations on the pure red of the fan. Although the pantone system is widely used in the printing and design industry for this purpose, there is no standardized recording of different colors in the standard format which is reached in different notes in the musical.
  • Modern artists extend their painting practices, for example, to include collage. This current has begun with cubism, and indeed it is not a work of art in classical mania. The textures of modern artists include different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood. Examples are the works of Jean Dubuffet or Anselm Kiefer.
  • Modern and contemporary art has moved away from classical arts values ​​in favor of a self-defining concept. Despite the fact that some circles say that it is a long-established form of art, most of the artists continue to exhibit new paintings.
  • Ceramic:
  • Ceramic art is made of ceramics, including ceramics, and can take forms such as ceramics, tiles, pottery, sculpture and glassware. While some ceramic products are considered fine arts, some are considered decorative, industrial or applied art objects. Ceramics can also be thought of as archaeological artefacts. Ceramic art can be done by a person or a group of people. In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design, produce and decorate pottery. Pottery products are sometimes called “art ceramics”. In modern ceramic engineering; The term “ceramics” is defined as art and science in which objects are produced by the movement of inorganic, non-metallic materials through heat.
  • Photography:
  • A photograph as an art form; Refers to photographs created in accordance with the creative vision of the photographer. In artistic terms, photography continues unlike photography, which provides visuals for daily news. The main focus of photography photography is to promote products or services.
  • Architectural:
  • Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. The word architecture is derived from the words “carpenters” and “architects” in Greek (αρχι-arkhi) “conductor, maker” and (τεκτων-tecton) And those who worked in the field of architecture were referred to as “work directors”.
  • With a broader definition; Urban planning, urban design, furniture design, and architectural design from macro level to micro level of landscape architecture. In architectural design, the designer should generally address the feasibility and cost of designing, as well as functionality and aesthetics for the user.
  • In modern use, architecture is the art and discipline of creating or extracting an implicit or explicit plan of a complex object or system. This term is used to describe topics such as abstract things like music and mathematics, or the visible architecture of natural things such as geological formations and the structure of biological cells. It can also be used to indicate explicitly planned architectures of man-made things, such as sandwich architecture or software. Computer architecture, business and database architectures are some architectural practices that are used today and beyond urbanism. In practice, an architectural work creates an element that preserves the relationship between building components or systems by way of a human perspective, or emerges as a subjective mapping for components. Architects can examine and design elements or components that make up a system from an abstract perspective.
  • Planned architecture means the analysis of space, volume, texture, light, shadow or abstract items to achieve pleasant and aesthetic constructions, and design development in this context. Is devoted to applied science or engineering, which focuses more on the functionality, feasibility and computation of structures.
  • In the field of architectural architecture, the skills demanded from a mimar include complex structures such as hospitals and stadiums, as well as relatively simpler areas such as the planning of dwellings. Most architectural works can also be seen as cultural and political symbols and / or works. The role of the architect in the modern society is to achieve the buildings built to meet the satisfaction and aesthetics of the people’s living environment, while changing according to the area, and to develop design and application for this purpose.
  • Statue:
  • Sculpture is the art in which the visual arts are studied in three dimensions. The art sculpture is considered as one of the plastic arts. Sculpture is the art of modeling on stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials by means of carving, ie lifting the material. But since the modern era, the changes in the process of sculpture have been almost complete. Thanks to these changes, material and process freedom has come to fruition. A wide variety of materials can be processed by methods such as combining with molding, welding or modeling, molding or casting.

  • History of art
  • Although they have sculptures, caves and rock paintings that date back 40,000 years, they are not fully known because of the lack of knowledge about the culture in which they are developed. The oldest known object of art – a pierced snail shell – was found 75,000 years ago, but it was probably 100,000 years old, probably made of containers for painting. 
  • Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Iran, India, Ancient Greek, Roman, Inca, Maya, Olmek have been inherited from many civilizations. The ancient Greek arts concentrated on the ideal proportions of human physiology, and later on in Byzantine and Medieval Europe gained biblical and religious motifs and developed styles that glorify them. Renaissance has developed techniques for painting the physical world and applying the perspective systematically to create three-dimensional perception in the picture.
  • In the east, due to the prohibition of iconography in Islamic art, geometric forms, calligraphy and architecture have been concentrated. In the Far East, religion and artistic production have also given way in these periods. Indian and Tibetan sculptures and dances are on the forefront, while religious paintings are nourished by these practices. In China, jewelry, bronze workmanship, pottery, poetry, calligraphy, music, painting, theater developed, artistic tendencies have changed according to the initial sülaleye.
  • In the 18th century in the West, with the Enlightenment, a rational, hour-wise understanding of the universe developed, reflecting Blake’s Newton as a sacred geometricist or his propagandist paintings. It then left its place in the 19th century artistic movements such as academic art, Symbolism, Impressionism, Fauvism, which are the forerunners of emotion and individual as a reaction.
  • The 20th century art history has been a century of artistic endeavors. Thus, the parameters of the currents such as Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism influenced later movements even though they did not go far beyond the years they were invented. From the second half of the century, the modernist culture became dominant, and as Theodor W. Adorno wrote in the opening citation of the book The Esthetic Theory of 1970 published in 1970, “what is accepted without question now is that nothing about art, neither art itself, nor the relation of art to the world, The right of art to exist can not be accepted without questioning. ” Relativism has been recognized as an inevitable reality, which has started the period of contemporary art and postmodern criticism.
Art
Author: wik Date: 8:42 pm
Culture and Art


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