Anthropology

  • What does anthropology mean?
  • Anthropology is human science. Anthropologists study all societies, cultures, human remains and physical and biological structures. Anthropology, which studies the physical structure of human skeletons and skulls, helps to illuminate the earliest periods of human history. This science makes people understand cultural, social and biological diversity; From the outset of mankind, to see how people adapt to various conditions, how these adaptations evolve and change, and how various global events translate.

 

  • It is holistic in both senses (holistic and believable), related to all the people who lived or lived all the time, and covers all dimensions of humanity. In principle, it deals with all the institutions of all communities.

 

  • Anthropology is distinguished from other social disciplines, in particular by cultural relativism, an in-depth study of context and an emphasis on intercultural comparability.

 

  • The anthropology method is very scientific in nature and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. In the history of the discipline of ethnology, ethnographers have taken an important place and formed a focus. Nonetheless, it can be seen that ethnographic studies and ethnographic interests have shown different tendencies in different anthropological subdivisions, especially in the 20th century. In medical anthropology, for example, in the middle of the twentieth century, there has been a shift in focus from small communities to modern Western societies.

 

  • History and institutional context of anthropology
  • Eric Wolf described anthropology as “the most scientific of humanities” and “the most human of sciences“.
  • Contemporary anthropologists have put forward some famous thinkers as leaders and various sources of discipline have been put forward; For example Claude Lévi-Strauss, Montaigne and Rousseau are important factors.
  • Anthropology can also be understood as a consequence and extension of the Age of Enlightenment, in which Europeans systematically attempted to examine human behavior. Traditions such as law, history, philology and sociology have developed the social sciences in which anthropology is involved, as well as the evolution towards the state, which more closely reflects the modern views of these sciences. At the same time, the work of philosophers such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey, which appeared as a romantic reaction to the Enlightenment, constituted the basis of the “concept of culture“, which can be said to form the basis of anthropology discipline.

 

  • Institutionally, anthropology has emerged and developed during the European colonization of the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries as natural history (sometimes natural history) developed. The first ethnographic studies that have been characterized by the field, which is often referred to as the study of “primitive people“, have emerged. The roots of some of the famous ethnographic studies that emerged during these periods are based on the will of the colonial administration; Such as Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard’s study of the Azadi people. In the late 18th century, the Enlightenment described human communities as a natural phenomenon acting according to certain principles that can be empirically observed. From some angles, the investigation and examination of language, culture, physiology, technology, traditions and beliefs in the European colonies was no different from the exploration and examination of fauna and flora in these places. However, cultural practice has undergone major changes, especially in recent times, and it is not true today that anthropology is defined or seen as an extension of the colonial period and Europe’s thought and practice in this period.

 

  • Anthropology quickly developed into a separate discipline by separating from natural history, and towards the end of the nineteenth century the modern figure approached in great measure. In 1935, for example, T. K. Penniman received a work entitled “A Hundred Years of Anthropology“, which is about the history of discipline, namely, “A Century of Anthropology.” The idea that early anthropology, unilinealism, that is to say that all communities have gone from one evolutionary process to the most primitive to the most developed, is in my opinion.

 

 

 

 

 

  • From this, non-European communities were seen as “living fossils” during this evolutionary process, and the idea that Europe could be examined to understand the past was widely publicized.

 

  • The migrations of various communities have been revealed in a great way; As Paul Rivet correctly identifies Polynesian migrations in the Pacific Ocean for the first time.

 

  • Finally, the concept of race and related concepts have been developed in conjunction with various tools and applications, such as anthropometry, to understand the nature of biological diversity within a human species. However, later on, the race and related concepts were used on a different and more ideological basis, to be referred to as scientific racism.

 

  • Today, the concepts of race and related concepts have lost their validity in anthropology and are not used as a scientific concept; Their scientific origins or practices have been lost. In addition, the term “ethnicity” is preferred today for most of the meaning in the old literature where the concept of “race” is used.

 

  • In the 20th century, academic disciplines began to be organized in three main areas. While science or science aims at the attainment of natural laws through reproducible and counterproductive experiments, human sciences aims at examining different national traditions, history and art. Social sciences have emerged with the aim of establishing a universal basis for social knowledge and the development of scientific methods to identify and examine social phenomena.

 

  • As an academic discipline, anthropology can not easily accommodate any of these categories, depending on the different methods and interdisciplinary work the lower branches have adopted.

 

  • Lower branches of anthropology
  • Listed below are the areas in which the science of anthropology works together, from time to time, and their subfields:
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Biological Anthropology
  • Language Anthropology
  • Paleoetnobotanic
  • Paleopathology
  • Medical anthropology
  • Primatology
  • Paleoanthropology
  • Osteology
  • Cultural anthropology (also Social anthropology)
  • Art Anthropology
  • Law anthropology
  • Religion anthropology
  • Applied anthropology
  • Intercultural work
  • Cyber ​​anthropology
  • Developmental anthropology
  • Environmental anthropology
  • Economic anthropology
  • Ecological anthropology
  • Ethnography
  • Ethnomusicology
  • Feminist anthropology
  • Medical anthropology
  • Psychological anthropology
  • Political anthropology
  • Public anthropology
  • Symbolic anthropology (or symbols / symbols anthropology)
  • Visual anthropology
  • Linguistic anthropology (ie linguistic anthropology)
  • Synchronous lenguism (simultaneous linguistics or linguistic linguistics)
  • Diaconic lenguism (artificial linguistics)
  • Etnolengüistik
  • Sociolinguistic
  • Archaeology
  • Tropology (science fiction with music)
Anthropology
Author: wik Date: 7:30 pm
Social sciences and society


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