Antarctica is the continent that contains the South Pole, which is the southernmost part of the Southern Hemisphere. The only continent south of Africa and Oceania with no country in it. It is the driest place in the world, it has not been raining for some 2 million years in some parts of the country.
After a search of 200 years for the legendary continent to be found in the south; But was successful in 1840. Charles Wilkes, who sails about 2,000 km along the coast with the sailboat, proves that, unlike the North Pole of seas, there is a really big continent where the South Pole is. With an area of 14.4 million km² this continent is almost half the size of Africa. Within this region are several teams, including South Shetland and South Georgia.
Its name means “across from Arctica” (Greek: Antarctic). Cover Antarctica like a large layer of ice on an average of 2,000 m in thickness. Sometimes it is called “unattainable” at the pole where the ice thickness is 4,335 m. This mass of ice constitutes 92 per cent of all ice on Earth with a volume of 24 million km³. The pieces of ice, 350-600 m in thickness, cut from the shores, travel at 1-3 m / day and stack on top of each other. The Ross Ice House, one of such floats, is almost of French size with an area of 540,000 km². Large parts of the tide that breaks from the ice are scattered around. Among these icebergs are those who reach 20,000 km².
In the South Pole, the earth’s coldest and stormy climate dominates. The average temperature is -20 ° C in the summer months, which may fall to -70 ° C when the storm surges from the south. Measurements made at the US observation station at the geographical South Pole point indicate that the annual average temperature is -50 ° C, but it rises to -29 ° C in the warmest month. So the temperature of this greatest fridge on earth is about 22 degrees lower than the North Pole.
In Greek, Arktos (ἄρκτος) means “bear“. The Big Bear, seen in the northern hemisphere, is given to constellation. Arktikos (ἀρκτικός) means “near the moon” to indicate places in the north. The word came out day by day as Arctic. Antarctica (ἀνταρκτικός) was used as the opposite of Arctos for the yet unknown land thought to be in the south to balance the known northern part of the world. Antarctica, a united and masculine name, passed in the form of Antarctic as a feminine version of Latin with the romance of Yunancan. “Anti-northern means southern.” This is the root of the name Antarctic (Antarctic) used today. MS has been used since the first century and during the period of geographical discoveries to describe the unknown frozen soil mass in the south. Today, the South Pole describes the Arctic region consisting of the Antarctic continent, ice shelves, environmental waters, Convergence Area, the Southern Ocean and the islands there. The first ” c ” in the first read / k / or spelling was added for etymological reasons and was pronounced without being read in the middle ages, but it was still read as it was written later. Prior to today’s geographical use, the name “Antarctica” was also used for other places in the sense of anti-north. For example, a short-lived colony founded in France by the French in the 16th century was called “France Antarctique“.
As an extension of the adventure of the name “Antarctica“, the name Antarctica was first used by the Scottish geographer and cartographer John George Bartholomew in 1886 for a paper by Sir John Murray, a pioneer of ocean science. The continental land on the map was named Antarctica. This map was the basis for the use of the mapped maps, the use of the name Antarctica for the continent became increasingly widespread, and was fully accepted in the 1920s.
Discovery of Antarctic
Antarctica’s discovery process convinces the existence of a large piece of soil in the south for symmetry and balance in the first half of the second century AD, and the “symmetry” and “balance” thought of Greek philosophers in the world between 600 and 300 BC It began with attempts to search for Terra Australis, shaped for centuries and shaped by what they wrote.
Steps before discovery
In the 15th century, European explorers Vasco de Gama and Bartolomeu Dias traveled along the African continent and roamed the Cape of GoodHope to find new routes; In 1520, the Portuguese seafarer Ferdinand Magellan headed west and discovered the so-called Magellan Straits, reaching the Pacific Ocean; Admiral Drake’s discovery of the Drake Strait, which separated South America and Antarctica in 1578 but is not known at that time, is based on Dirck Gerritsz in 1599, Gabriel de Castilla in 1603, Jacob le Maire in 1615, The journeys of Willem Schouten and the Garcia de Nodal brothers in 1619; Anthony de la Roché discovered the South Georgia Islands in 1675; Edmond Halley in 1699, Expeditionary Expedition to Captain George Shelvocke in 1720; The Bouvet Island of Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier in 1739, the Kerguelen Islands of Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec in 1771 and the Crozet Islands of Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne in 1772 ; James Cook’s first discoveries in 1769-1771 and his second exploration trips in 1772-1775 were part of the discovery process of Antarctica.
By the 17th century Australia’s discovery and subsequent expeditions, the geographers Terra Australis were finally convinced that there was no other major land mass to the south of Australia; That’s why the name “Australia” was given to the continent. In particular, explorer Matthew Flinders has been instrumental in spreading the name Terra Australis to Australia. Geographical maps seemed to support this hypothesis until Captain James Cook’s Resolution and Adventure gemini passed the South Pole at three different latitudes and longitudes on January 17, 1773, December 1773 and January 1774.
Cook approached 121km from the coast of Antarctica in January 1773, crossing the 71st south latitude before returning, finding it dangerous to continue because of the ice block. The complicated and bumpy route at Cook’s second time proved to be no important land piece between Australia and the Firelands. Thus, although it ended the legend that it was a habitable continent in the south, it opened the way for the future discovery of Antarctica. According to him, there was land on the temperate side of the 60th south latitude, but he persuaded himself that there was no economic value to reach beyond.
For the next fifty years, no attempt was made to search for Antarctica, except for the whaling hunters who descended south on the decline of whales in the North Seas, and the Southern Ocean and its vicinity.
With the debate on who was the first to talk to Antarctica, The National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego and other researchers agree that the first verified confrontation of European and American explorers with Antarctica occurred in 1820. According to this; Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen from the Russian Imperial Navy, Edward Bransfield from the Royal Navy and American crew Nathaniel Palmer were the first to see the land of ice or ice with the crew. In the Russian campaign under the leadership of Bellingshausen, Vostok and Mirny vessels, captained by Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev, reached their present location, 32 km from the Queen Maud Lands, and observed and recorded the Fimbul Ice House on the Princess Martha Coast today. Three days later Barnsfield saw Palmer’s main land ten months later. The first documented footprint on the Antarctic continent was made by the American sailor John Davis, although some historians opposed it. On February 7, 1821, Davis landed on Hughes Bay, next to Charles Burn in West Antarctica. In 1895, Adare Burnu was the first to be registered in the continental land and confirmed.
1838-1842 On 25 January 1840, when the US Navy conducted a part of the United States Expeditionary Expeditionary Expedition (also called the Wilkes Expedition or Ex. The Antarctic continental lands of the west of the Ballany Islands were reached. This was later called the Wilkes Land.
Two days after the discovery of the western coast of the Balleny Islands, some members of the crew of Jules Dumont d’Urville, 1837-1840, on January 22, 1840, rose to the top of a group of rocks called the Dumoulin Islands, 48 km from the Adélie Territory. They collect some mineral, algae and aviary samples.
In 1841, James Clark Ross crossed the Ross Sea with what is now known as HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, and discovered Ross Island. Watching the Ross Ice House rising like a frosted wall, he discovered Terror Mountain with Mount Erebus, named for the vessels that joined the chief. Mercator Cooper stepped on East Antarctica on January 26, 1853.
In 1907, the group led by Edgeworth David in the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton climbed Mount Erebus for the first time and reached the Magnetic South Pole. Douglas Mawson took the leadership of the group on the dangerous return trip in 1931, who would join a few seafarers until they left their expeditionary expeditions. Shackleton and three members of the campaign carried out several provinces between December 1908 and February 1909: Ross was the first to arrive at the Ice House in the land; Passing through the Beardmore Glacier to the Transatlantic Mountains; It was the first people to set foot in the Antarctic plateau.
On December 14, 1911, the Norwegian Polar Inspector Roald Amundsen was the first to arrive at the Geographical South Pole, starting from the Whales Bay and using an ongoing route through the Axel Heiberg Glacier. Scott’s unfortunate expedition took place a month after Amundsen. As Roald Amundsen returned to his right wing at the end of the journey, Robert Falcon Scott lost his freezing life during his return journey.
On the Wilkins-Hearst Expedition led by Sir George Hubert Wilkins, Wilkins and Carl Ben Eielson flew over Hearst Island in the Weddel Sea on November 16, 1928, flying on the Antarctic on December 20, 1928, on Deception Island and Graham’s Land, They made the first flight.
In 1928, under the leadership of Richard E. Byrd, the two ships and three airplanes carried out some scientific experiments, as well as aerial exploration and photography, with flights over the continent. On November 28, 1929, he flew to the southern pole with his Byrd team. Under Byrd’s leadership, many firsts were held in four times between 1928-1947 in Antarctica, and geological and biological researches were carried out.
Due to the International Geophysical Yearbook Antactica became the focus of the entire world in 1956-1958. Many countries have started scientific programs related to Antarctica during this activity period. Numerous research stations were established on the continent. Numerous researches were carried out, mainly in geological surveys and also in later years. Numerous expeditions have been organized to undiscovered places of the land.
Antarctica is the southernmost continent, surrounded by the Southern Ocean, consisting of a main island and a surrounding island, settled asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely in the South Pole Circle. South Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean. The border of the continent is located at the 60th south latitude in the north. The area of 14 million km2 is the fifth largest after Asia, Africa, North America and South America.
Antarctica is approximately 1000 km to the South American coast, 3100 km to Australia and 3980 km to the African coast. The distance from one end to the tip is about 4500 km. To the north of the black mass is the Hope Bay at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. However, the northernmost point of the Antarctic continent lies in one of the Seal Islands, which forms part of the South Shetland Islands. The southern Orkney Islands, further north than the Seal Islands, are not included in Antarctica although they remain south of the 60th south latitude. The southernmost South of the continent is the southernmost of the Earth’s Geographical South Pole.
The shoreline is 17.968 km long and is characterized by ice formations.
The Antarctic is divided into the Transantarctic Mountains extending from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea and the West and East hemispheres divided roughly by the head meridian into West Antarctica and East Antarctica.
The highest point of Antarctica is Mount Vinson at 4892 meters. Antarctica has many mountains both in its vicinity and in the small islands around it. Erebus Mountain in Ross Island is the closest active volcano in the world to the south. Another volcano known for its massive explosion in 1970 is Deception Island. Other undiscovered volcanoes can be potentially active. A potentially active underwater vortex in 2004 was found by American and Canadian researchers on the Antarctic Peninsula.
98% of Antarctica is covered with ice. The average thickness of the Antarctic ice layer is 2133 meters. It has been estimated that this ice sheet, which makes up about 90% of the world’s ice and 70% of fresh water, will rise to about 60 m sea level all over the world as a whole.
Climate of Antarctica
Antarctica is the coldest continent of the world. The coldest natural temperature measured on Earth was measured at -89.2 ° C (-128.6 ° F) on July 21, 1983 in Russia’s (former Soviet Union’s) Vostok Station in Antarctica. The eastern part of the Antarctic is colder than its west due to its height. Some parts of Antarctica have not seen a rainy face for 2 million years. That is why Antarctica is the driest place in the world.
Population of Antarctica
Some continental states have permanent human research stations. The population of the continent, working in the islands around the continent, in scientific studies and with other workers, is 1,000 in winter and 5,000 in summer.
Antarctic Plant Cover
There are not 400 plants in the Arctic that bloom, only one blooming plant species. Freezing coldness, poor soil quality, humidity and lack of sunlight are preventing growth of plants. As a result, the distribution of plant diversity is very low and limited. The bedrock flora is largely composed of Bryophytes.
A large number of animals live on the shores and open seas of the continent. Penguins, seagulls, birds, seals, calamars and whales keep their lives by eating planktones and fishes in the South Pole seas, which are cold but rich in nutrients. Only penguins are confined to this continent. Polar bears do not live in Antarctica.
There are 35 penguin species, 200 fish species, 12 whales, and dozens of different species of bird. Plankton called Kril in the Antarctic ecosystem is thought to be a solution to the problems of countries suffering from food shortages. Today, Kril is hunting as little as 100 thousand tons. It is estimated that hunting of the amount of fish held in one year (70 million tons) will not be a problem in the world.
Adelie is some penguin.
Pretty minke whale
Some of the Antarctic minke bales are.
South sea elephant
Leopard smell or Pars smell are some of them.
South Georgia Incubus
Some are Antarctic storm birds.
Some of the Antarctic icebergs are.
There are calamari like giant calamari.
Antarctic Management and policy
There is no government in Antarctica, although several countries claim sovereignty in some regions. Moreover, although some of these countries mutually accept each other’s claims, there is no recognized sovereignty in the universal nature.
After the discovery of the land, the struggle for land ownership began intensively, especially since the 1910s. At the end of the 1940’s, seven countries (Argentina, Chile, Australia, France, Norway, New Zealand, United Kingdom) were concerned about territorial dominance in Antarctica. Some of the countries claiming to claim the same areas, as well as the claims of the rest of the world were not accepted. (Only 15% of the landlord did not have a claim of rights.) The ownership of a continent by seven states constituted a reaction in the world. In 1947, the New York Times proposed that the continent be ruled by the United Nations on behalf of all nations. In 1948 the same views began to defend the United States. New Zealand claimed in 1956 that the land should be the world land.
Since 1959, new claims of sovereignty over Antarctica have been suspended and predicted that Antarctica is politically neutral. The status of the ship was called the Antarctic Treaty System with the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other relevant agreements. All the black and glacier parts south of the 60 degree latitude of the Agreement System are defined by the name Antarctica. Agreement: The USSR (later Russia) was signed by 12 countries, including the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia and the United States. Thus, in addition to the scientific protection provided to Antarctica, military activities are prohibited in Antarctica, where freedom of scientific investigation and environmental protection is allocated. This deal is the first disarmament treaty in the Cold War era.
In 1983 the parties to the Treaty of Antarctica began to talk and discuss mining in Antarctica. An international coalition of organizations was launched to launch a social pressure campaign to block the removal of minerals from the region. These actions, further amplified by Greenpeace, led to protesters establishing their own scientific stations (World Park Base in the Ross Sea region) and annual explorations were organized to document the environmental impacts of people on Antarctica. In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was established. The following year, Australia and France announced that they did not endorse the congress, which was deadly at the same time with all intents and purposes of passion. Australia and France proposed a comprehensive consultation for the protection of the Antarctic landscape instead of such an application. The Protocol on the Environmental Protection of Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol) was proposed following the rest of the world and the protocol entered into force on 14 January 1998. The Madrid Protocol completely banned mining in Antarctica and designated Antarctica as a “natural reserve dedicated to conscience and peace.”
The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity, including the establishment of military bases and garrisons in Antarctica, military maneuvers and weapons tests. Military personnel and equipment are only released for scientific and other peaceful purposes. The only documented military landmine is the Operation DOKSAN (Operación 90) made by the Argentine Army.
The United States Armed Forces provide an Antarctic Service Medal to army personnel or civilians serving in research for two to six months in Antarctica. The medal is awarded with a strip of “Wintered Over“, with the medallion on the back of the sea, with “sea creatures” and penguin motifs in the middle, “COURAGE, SACRIFICE and DEVOTION“.
Heads of state visits
On February 10, 2015, the Norwegian King V. Harald was the monarch who visited the world’s first Antarctica, and V. Harald especially traveled to the Queen’s Maud Territories of Norway, this visit to V. Harald “King of Antarctica” (Norwegian: Hunting Antarctic).
Some 60 years ago, scientists claimed that the continent had no economic value. In the investigations, metals and hydrocarbons such as copper, cobalt, lead, gold, manganese, titanium, nickel, zinc and uranium were detected in the investigations. Large quantities contain reserves of natural gas (115 trillion cubic meters) and oil (45 billion barrels). Today, there are gigantic fresh water resources in the continent that can not be used for economic and scientific reasons. It is the amount of fresh ice that will be consumed for one year to meet the annual fresh water requirement of 5 billion people. The water of 688 km3 is more than the fresh water flowing in all the rivers of the world. The transport of icebergs to the countries suffering from water stress has been discussed.
According to the Treaty of Antarctica, which was signed in 1959 and started to be implemented in 1961, only scientific researches can be done in the continental Europe. Today, there are 101 research stations in 29 continents of continental Europe. 46 of the stations are located on the Antarctic Peninsula and the surrounding islands. Brazil, Poland, Bulgaria, Peru, Korea, Czech Republic, and Ukraine have one research station.