Home » History » Anarchism

Anarchism

  • What does mean anarchism?
  • Anarchism is a social term that defines various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of all forms of social authority, of dominion, of man, and of hierarchy (derived from the words “non-existent, negativity” and archos “manager” in ancient Greek) . Anarchism is the rejection of all kinds of authority in all circumstances.

 

  • These movements generally favor a society characterized by freedom and autonomy, advocating voluntary interaction and self-government based on social relations rather than central political structures, private ownership of the means of production and economic institutions. These philosophies refer to the idea of ​​anarchy as a society based on the voluntary interaction of free individuals, a measure of the extent to which individuals and communities are influenced by decisions taken.

 

  • Resisting compulsory institutions and societal-based hierarchies expresses a positive view of how the anarchism is based on the original principles and how anarchism is based on a voluntary society. Among the anarchist philosophies there is a considerable variety. There are various opinions on different areas such as the place of violence in anarchism, what kind of economic system it should be, questions about environment and industrialism, and the role of anarchists in other movements. Anarchist movements can be very different and even against each other for these reasons. For instance, there are anarchist trends like anarchist communism as well as Christian anarchism.

 

  • Basic concepts of anarchism
  • Anarchism is against traditional politics; Statelessness and nonviolence are the basic principles. In classical anarchism parliament is a fake institution, not the power of the people, so it is necessary to vote. The state is bad for nature, not because it is bad. The parties are the members of the order.
  • There is anarchisms, not anarchism. Their common features are total deprivation, anti-dogmatism, revolutionism, consistent acceptance of contradiction and inconsistency, individual freedom. Zerzan has suggested removing culture and technology from the middle, and going to neanderthals. In the Spanish Civil War, anarchists also took part, were defeated and marginalized. There is a strong anarchist movement in the First International. Anarcho-communists, individual terrorists, Malatestians, libertarians, general strikers have emerged. Proudhon, the prophecy of the property boasts. Stirner, Proudhon, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Godwin, Sorel, Goldman, Rothbard have contributed to the anarchist theorem in anti-political policy makers, nonapolitic, anarcho-capitalist defenders.
  • In individualistic anarchism there is no state, no tax, no military service, no police, no law, no collectivities, and no society at the end. These concepts are evident in Warren, Spooner, Tucker. Anarchists are against the Bolshevik revolution. It accepts the disappearance of the state, leaving the order naturalized. A self-functioning moral scheme can operate without statute and statelessness. Local communities can defend freedoms against the state, the capital, the church, with direct solidarity. In this society, the frontier is the main principle.

 

  • An anarchist arm advocates violence. He sees action and propaganda as a driving force. The revolutionary Malatesta, Nejayev and Bakunin, who called for defensive violence and shake hands with assassinations, came into being. Kropotkin evolutionist, Tolstoy pacifist, Gandhi boycotcher, Proudhon cooperative team. According to those who advocate the absorption of the state, public banks should be established. Poststructuralist anarchists emphasize decentralization.

 

  • Traditions
  • Mutualism
  • Mutualism emerged in the 18th century with British and French workers’ movements, and then Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France gained an anarchist appearance in connection with some other thinkers in the United States. In the United States, for example, influence on individualist anarchists such as Benjamin Tucker and William B. Greene was seen.
  • Important concepts of mutualism include; Federation, reciprocity, free partnership, voluntary contracts, credit and money reform. According to many mutualist views, according to a free market-labor value theory, where government intervention does not exist, it removes profit, rent and interest, attracts prices to labor costs, and instead of competition for workers, An order in which firms compete for workers by increasing wages is provided.

 

  • Mutualism is sometimes seen as a synthesis somewhere between individualist and collectivist anarchism. This thought was expressed in the works of mutualists. “What is Property?” Proudhon proposes the concept of “anarchy“, which is dialectical synthesis of communism and property, equivalent to the concept of “freedom“. Inspired by Pierre-Leroux, Greene calls for mutualism in the synthesis of three philosophies: communism, capitalism and socialism. Subsequent individualist anarchists use the term mutualist with little emphasis on the theme of “synthesis“.

 

  • Prior to Proudhon, Josiah suggested similar views following Warren’s unsuccessful Owen experience. In the 1840s and 1850s, Charles A. Dana and William B. Greene introduced Proudhon’s work in the United States. Greene Proudhon reconsidered the concept of mutualism under US conditions and talked to Benjamin R. Tucker.

 

  • Collectivist Anarchism
  • Collectivist anarchism (not to be confused with communal anarchism in a broader sense) is an anarchist movement expressed in particular by Mikhail Bakunin and the anti-authoritarian segment of the First International. Johann Most is also a member of this approach.

 

  • Unlike the Mutualists, the collectivist anarchists oppose any private property of the means of production and advocate the collectivization of property. But collectivization should not be extended to income sharing, because workers will be charged according to their working time, unlike the anarcho-communist understanding of “according to everyone’s needs“. In the first part of the 1880s, Spain’s early anarchist movement adopted collectivism in some periods, while the majority of the European anarchist movement was mainly based on the anarcho-communist ideology that advocated distribution, and not necessarily on the basis of abolishing concrete labor. Collectivist anarchists support labor compensation and, according to what they desire, see communist sharing possible in the post-revolutionary period. Collectivist anarchism has dismissed him as a struggle for a stateless, collectivist society, and distanced himself from the dictatorship of the Marxist workers who rose in the same period.

 

  • Individual Anarchism
  • Individualistic anarchism, composed of different traditions, believes that individual consciousness and individual interest should not be hindered by any collective body or public authority. Individualistic anarchism positively affects individuals in the possession of property against the idea of ​​collective ownership of social, socialist, collectivist, communalist trends. Some important representatives are Henry David Thoreau, Josiah Warren and Murray Rothbard. In addition, William Godwin is generally considered an individualist anarchist. Godwin, while advocating philanthropic belief, believed in the rationality of the progressive individual who expressed the individual promise of each individual, his own labor and ownership, and eventually led to the contraction of the government, which would eventually result in its removal.

 

  • Max Stirner is the most well-known and also the first individualist anarchist. Stirner’s philosophy is the individualistic anarchism egoistic form; According to him, there is no responsibility for the individual, the members of society, who act as he / she wants without considering god, state, morality and society. According to Stirner rights are fears in the mind of man and there is no such thing as society; “The individual is his reality” He sees property as being possessed with power and might, not with rights. Stirner sees the unity of the egoists as a model of organization that brings people together.

 

  • Less radical, a different kind of anarchism was advocated by Boston anarchists. They supported free market and private property. They were willing to provide private contracts to protect freedom and property. In addition, they were supposed to trade salary allowances, but they were also warning that capitalism in the state monopoly (defined as a monopoly in state guarantees) would not provide a guarantee of labor.

 

  • Even in the nineteenth century, differences of opinion had arisen among American individualists, and therefore it seems impossible to talk about a particular theory in terms of individualistic anarchism. For example, Tucker opposes intellectual property rights; He was supporting the spooner. While Tucker was defending land ownership only when it was used, Byington and Spooner were not talking about such a restriction on property.

 

  • A significant dissociation was seen in the 19th century when Tucker and some other anarchists abandoned the idea of ​​natural rights and adopted “egoism” in Stirner’s philosophical light. After this century “individualistic anarchism peaked” but individualism anarchism was later adopted by Murray Rothbard and various changes as one of libertarian movement movements in the wider frame of the anarcho-capitalists in the mid-20th century.

 

  • Anarcho-Communism
  • Anarcho communists argue that it is the most free form of social organization that can be a community of self-managed communities with collective means of production, a form of political organization directly operated by democracy, and a federation relationship with other communes. However, some anarcho-communists have stood up against the pluralist structure of direct democracy, arguing that it hinders individual freedom and put forward a consensus-based understanding of democracy.

 

  • Joseph Déjacque was the first anarcho-communists, and Déjacque was the first anarchist to express himself as liberator. Other anarcho communists are Peter Kropotkin, Emman Goldman, Alexander Berkman and Errico Maletesta.

 

  • In the light of anarcho-communism, it is not foreseen that workers will receive direct compensation in exchange for profits or wage-paid labor, but instead are given free access to the commune’s surplus value and resources. According to Kropotkin and later by Murray Bookchin, Such community members will automatically perform all necessary tasks because they will see the benefits of communal initiative and mutual assistance, the causes of oppression and exploitation, and demand their intervention. As a source of oppression and exploitation of private property, Kropotkin responded by saying that “shelters, land and factories will no longer be private property, will belong to the commune or nation“.

 

  • The position within the anarcho-communist ideology of anarchism should be controversial, because the individualist and anarcho-capitalist anarchists see it as irreconcilable with the idea of ​​freedom. Anarcho syndicalists, on the other hand, accept anarcho-communist society as a harmonious target for their own purposes; For example, the Spanish CNT accepted Isaac Puente’s 1932 El Comunismo Libertario as a manifesto for post-revolutionary society.

 

  • In platformism, Nestor Makhno is an anarchist communist tendency from the tradition, expressing the need for urgent need. According to Makhno, this organization will “incorporate the majority of members of the anarchist movement into a common tactical and political line for anarchism and serve as a guide for the whole movement

 

  • Anarcho Syndicalism
  • In the early part of the 20th century, anarcho syndicalism has risen as a different current of thought within anarchism. Anarcho syndicalism, which focuses on the labor movement as opposed to previous anarchist movements, sees radical unions as a force to provide revolutionary social change, and it is a fundamental goal to take capitalism and the state off with a new society based on self-management of workers. Anarcho syndicalists reject the wage system and the private ownership of the means of production by reason of class distinction. Some of the important principles of unionism are; Worker solidarity, direct action (such as general strike and workplace occupations) and workers’ self-management.

 

  • Rudolf Rocker is an early-anarcho-syndicalist thinker. In his 1938 manuscripts Anarcho-syndicalism, in which he argued about the origin of this movement, Rocker voiced what it wants to do and why it is important for the future of labor. The movement, which took an important place in the early 20th century, continues to be active through several syndicalist organizations, especially in France and Spain.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Green Anarchism
  • The main problem of the movement is to revitalize the pre-industrial society and sometimes the pre-agriculture society. The industrial society, which is expressed in terms of technology and progress that alienates people from natural life, has an important place in criticism of this school. In his philosophy are the effects of the political actions of the Luddites and the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. However, more primitivism took place when the anthropologists such as Marshall Sahlins, Richard Lee, Lewis Mumford, Jean Baudrillard and Gary Snyder of the Frankfurt School’s Marxists Teoder Adorno and Herbert Marcuse’s thoughts took an important role in the shaping of this school.

 

  • While some green anarchists, who call themselves primitivists, advocate a complete return to natural life and a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle, many green anarchists take the agenda only to remove industrial society from the agenda and do not show a definite stand against domestication or agriculture. Theorists in the first category include Derrick Jensen and John Zerzan. Many green anarchists have left these problems in connection with the post-revolutionary future, focusing on the problems facing today’s world and the social revolution.

 

  • Today, many anarchist green anarchism follows Murray Bookchin’s thought of social ecology as the most proficient. This trend (together with the lighting industry, agriculture and sustainable urbanism) can be expressed as anarchism based on class ecological thought and developed ecological society.

 

  • Anarchism (pre-admonition) with the cues of the historian George Richard Esenwein: anarchism is a non-adjective form, a current of thought in which there are no decisive qualities such as communist, collectivist, mutualist or individualistic. Anarchism refers only to an attitude that tolerates the coexistence of different anarchist schools. This idea emphasizes common points among different anarchist schools and aims to unite them around anti-authoritarian beliefs. The statement was used by Cuban-born Fernando Tarrido del Mármol in November 1889, during a call to reconciliation at a time of intense debate among different anarchist movements.

 

  • Voltairine de Cleyre is a representative of anarchism (pre-admonition) movement (which initially referred to itself as an individualist anarchist and then to anarchism’s collectivist tendencies, with self-definition in any contemporary school). According to Cleyre, both socialism and communism require a certain level of joint action and a governing body, which creates new administrative arrangements that are inconsistent with the ideal of anarchism. As well as individualism and mutualism based on Cleyre Mülkiyesi, involves the development of a special police that is incompatible with my understanding of freedom. He emphasized the points of separation between other movements, but he did not take his words to describe these movements as non-anarchist movements.

 

  • Another representative of the school, Errico Maletesta, defended anarchism as an integrative movement, saying that there is no likelihood of anarchists attempting to clash on hypotheses. Fred Woodworth is accepted as the contemporary representative of the school.

 

  • Social Movement
  • First International
  • The 1848 revolutions that the violent reactionary period would follow were an important step in the socialist movement. The second most important stage of the revolutionary movement began about twenty years later with the establishment of the International Labor Union in 1864. The French Proudhon supporters, the Blanquistler, the British syndicalists, the International Union of Laborers with socialist and social democrats – the First International – with its first name – were established as an international socialist organization that transcends borders to bring together different revolutionary movements and world workers. Over time, it became an important force because of its direct connection with the workers’ movement. Karl Marx was a leading figure in the organization and one of the members of the General Assembly. The union that included many formations in the wide fan from the left politics was also the scene for various opinions due to this feature. Proudhonian supporters, Mutualists, opposed Marx’s idea of ​​state socialism, advocating the right of small property. Likewise, in Bakunin, who joined the anti-authoritarian section of the International in 1868, he defended the revolutionary subordination of the state and the collectivization of property.

 

  • Initially, the collectivists and the Marxists worked together to draw the International towards a more revolutionary socialist tendency, but later they left the organization around Marx and Bakunin and other important figures. Bakunin, Marx’s thoughts are authoritarian, suggesting that if a Marxist party comes to power, the party leaders will take the place of the ruling class they are fighting against. In 1872 this conflict reached its peak between the two groups and the separation at the Hague Congress was finalized. With Marx’s initiatives Bakunin and James Guillaume were exported from the International and the headquarters moved to New York. By contrast, the anti-authoritarian group of the International adopted an anarchist internationalism at the St Imier Congress, adopting a revolutionary anarchist program. The anti-authoritarian part of the First International was the pioneers of anarcho syndicalists who wanted to “overthrow privileges and state authority” with free labor organizations.

 

  • Anarchism and Organized Labor
  • Amsterdam International Anarchist Congress
  • In 1907, the Amsterdam International Anarchist Congress was held with the participation of representatives from 14 countries. Among the important names of the movement are; Errico Malatesta, Pierre Manatte, Luigi Fabbri, Benoil Broutchoux, Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Christiaan Cornelissen. The congress, where various issues were discussed, focused on the organization of the anarchist movement, the education of the masses, the general strike and anti-militarism. At the center of the discussion was the relation between anarchism and syndicalism. Maletesta and Monatte put forward arguments against each other, especially in this regard. While Monatte argued that unionism was a revolutionary attitude and would create the conditions of social revolution, unionism in Malatesta thought it was not enough by itself. According to Malatesta, the syndicates were reformed and sometimes even conservative. Malatesta, for example, pointing to US trade unions, said that these unions, formed by skilled workers, have sometimes engaged in actions to protect their privileges against unskilled workers.

 

  • General Business Confederation and CNT
  • Confédération Generale du Travail (General Business Confederation) was the first major anarcho syndicalist movement founded in France in 1895, followed by the Spanish Workers’ Federation in 1881. Anarchist trade union federations always had a special place in Spain, the most important of which was the National Confederation of Labor (CNT), founded in 1910, and had a major role in Spanish working class politics and an important role in the Spanish Civil War before the 1940s. This organization then joined the International Labor Union, representing 2 million workers from Europe and Latin America, an anarcho syndicalist federation founded in 1922. With the General Labor Confederation CGT and CNT, today the largest organized anarchist movement is in Spain. The number of members of the CGT is estimated to be around 100,000 for the year 2003.

 

  • Other active anarcho syndicalist movements are the Workers’ Solidarity Union in the United States and the Solidarity Federation in the United Kingdom. The revolutionary industry union explained that 2,000 active members of World Industrial Workers. In addition, the Anarcho syndicalist International Union of Laborers, who is the survivor of the First International, is still active in the field of labor struggle.

 

  • Russian Revolution
  • The anarchists joined the February and October revolutions in the same ranks as the Bolsheviks. Initially, anarchists supported the Bolshevik movement. But after a while, the Bolsheviks preferred to take anarchists and other left opponents, which led to the 1921 Kronstadt uprising. In this oppressive environment, the Anarchists were sometimes imprisoned or underground, and some joined the victorious Bolsheviks.

 

  • In Ukraine, the anarchists fought in the civil war, joining the Rebellion Ukrainian Army, where Nestor Makhno was the leader of the anarchist community-building initiatives against the White people and then the Bolsheviks, and a few months later. In the face of the pressure imposed on the anarchists, Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman criticized the Bolshevik politics, the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, and then they were exported from Russia because of these criticisms. According to Goldman and Berkman, the experience of the Russian revolution overcame Bakunin’s predictions of the consequences of the Marxist strategy.

 

  • The October victory of the Bolsheviks, and the resulting Russian Civil War, seriously affected the international anarchist movement in the field. Many workers and activists saw Bolshevik success as an example; Communist parties, anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the United States, for example, some CGT and IWW joined the Communist International leaving their syndicalist organizations.

 

  • In the midst of this crisis, the Russian anarchist group “Dielo Turda“, including Nestor Makhno, in Paris, was the result of the development of new organizations to respond to the Bolshevism. The manifesto of the General Union’s Organizational Platform of 1926, published by this finding, was supported by some communist anarchists, but not many others. Among the Platformist groups that are today based on this heritage are the Irish “Labor Solidarity” movement and the “North East Anarchist Communist North East Federation”.

 

  • Fight against Fascism
  • During the years 1920 and 1930, the rise of fascism in Europe led to the transformation of the clash between anarchism and the state, and this problem gained priority in the agenda of the anarchists. Italy witnessed the first conflict between the anarchists and the fascists. That is why the anti-fascist organization Arditi del Popolo, anarchists’ predominant role, played an important role in the fight against fascism. This group had numerous successes, including August 1922, when Parma took part in the repulse of Blackshirts.

 

  • During the February 1934 uprisings in France, the anarchists carried out the “United Front” strategy while the ultra-rightist rebellion was taking place. Contrary to the situation in France, CNT and other anarchists in Spain did not participate in the public outcry. This attitude was effective in the loss of election of the people. But in 1936, CNTs and anarchists went to the strategy change and the people supported the ceasefire in the next election. The ruling class had a coup in response to this and the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) erupted. In the civil war, the armed militias supported by peasants and workers from the anarchist tradition took control of some parts of Barcelona and Spain in the process of rebellion of the army. But with the absolute fascist victory of 1939, the anarchist movement was defeated in Spain. In fact, before that, the anarchists lost ground because of the intense struggle they had with the Stalinists. According to George Orwell and foreign observers, the Stalinist armies oppressed both collectives and put pressure on Marxists and anarchists. Meanwhile, the disagreements between the CNT leaders and the anarchists were quite widespread, and some of them joined the republican presidency.

 

  • From the late 1970s onward, some anarchist groups were part of a struggle against rising neo-fascism, and in Germany and the United Kingdom some anarchists fought with militant anti-fascist groups and Marxists. Instead of relying on fascism and fascism to intervene in the state, the anarchists advocated direct action and a fight based on power. Parallel to this, the anarchist social action and conflict process that started in Athens on December 6, 2008 as the result of the deaths of Alexis Grigoropoulos with a police bullet in Athens, a general that invited the Greek Democracy Party headed by Costas Karamanlis to resign in Greece within six days Strikes.

 

  • Anarchism is a philosophy that holds many different attitudes, tendencies, and schools of thought. Values, ideologies and tactics are common problems that have not yet been agreed upon. Civilization, technology, and democratic processes are sharply criticized by some anarchist tendencies and can be applauded by other anarchists. Anarchism, capitalism, nationalism and the relationship with religion are widely discussed. Anarchism, which has complex forms of relationship with ideologies such as Marxism, communism, anarcho-capitalism; Humanism, holy authority, individual interest, or various alternative ethical doctrines. As for racial sex, and the environment, the anarchist attitude has shown considerable changes since the 18th century philosophy

 

  • Reviews
  • Marxism
  • Marxists and anarchists have gathered together at the last celebrated Hague Congress, and since then they have been in constant struggle. In this congress, Marx and Bakunin discussed each other. At the end of the debate among the groups that began with Bakunin’s assessment of Marx’s ideas as authoritarian, the anarchists were excluded and expelled from the congress. This was the last congress in which anarchist and socialist groups took place together.
  • Marxist writers generally argue that anarchist thought is a petty-bourgeois ideology.
  • Engels criticized the views of the Bakunists in rejecting any authority in his famous article On Authority, which criticized a tough order and dealt with fundamental differences between the proletarian revolution and the anarchists regarding the state’s attitude towards the state. According to this; The anarchist idea is an unscientific, counterrevolutionary, and even betrayal of the “lifting of the state” without removing the social relations that created the state. Engels described this as

 

  • Anti-authoritarians want the authoritarian political state to abolish the social conditions, which are at a jab or even created it before it is destroyed, that they want the first work of the social revolution to be abolished from the middle of authority, have these gentlemen ever seen a revolution? It is an authoritarian action which is imposed by a part of the population with its own will, with all the authoritarian means by which rifles, sponges, and collectives can come into the other part of the population, and if the victorious part does not want to be defeated, it is the terror created by its weapons on the reactionaries If we had not used the authority of the armed people against the bourgeoisie, could it be tolerated for a day or two? “On the contrary, do not we have to accuse the Paris Community of not taking advantage of it freely? , Which in this case have not created anything other than confusion; Or they know it, in which case they betray the proletariat’s movement. In both cases they are serving the reaction. “

 

  • Marxist thinker and at the same time Lenin, the founder of the USSR, rejects anarchist theses and argues for the necessity of a non-bureaucratic state on the people who are not allies of a bourgeois parliamentary state, It is a must for the revolution.
Anarchism
Author: wik Date: 6:26 pm
History, Social sciences and society


Wik's Random Content