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AIDS

  • What does aids mean?
  • AIDS is an infectious disease that causes the immune system to collapse in humans due to HIV. The word AIDS is an abbreviation of the initials of the English words Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) gradually penetrates the immune system, destroying the body’s resistance to infections and ultimately killing the individual by making it vulnerable to various disorders. AIDS is the last stage of HIV infection, and lethal infections and cancers are frequent in this process. The person who has HIV in his blood is called HIV positive. HIV / AIDS combined term is widely used to provide concept integrity.

 

  • The HIV virus may not show symptoms for many years after it has been infected, and the person may feel better. In some cases, it has been seen that no HIV-positive person has been infected with AIDS for 8 to 10 years. ELISA tests performed at least 3 months after infection are the most accurate result.

 

  • AIDS History and geographical distribution
  • The first known AIDS cases were reported in 1981 in the states of New York and California. Many of the first individuals to be diagnosed with AIDS were drug addicts from homosexual men who sexually ill the disease and vaginal common use of syringes. In 1983, the American and French investigators discovered HIV as the cause of the disease, and in 1985, serologic blood tests that detected the virus were developed.

 

  • AIDS probably appeared in Africa, and in the 1980s an increase in the level of epidemics was seen in AIDS cases, particularly in Africa. In this rapid increase, the proliferation of urbanization, increased travel and international travel, change in sex habits, increased use of drugs from the vaults played an important role in Africa. According to the United Nations 2004 report, 38 million people in the world are HIV-infected, 5 million people are infected every year, and 3 million people die from AIDS. Between 1981 and 2008, 20 million people lost their lives due to AIDS.

 

  • 70% of all HIV-positive cases worldwide are in Sub-Saharan Africa. In some African countries, more than 10% of the population is carrying HIV. Although these rates are not so extreme in other parts of the world, there is a rapid increase in Eastern Europe, India, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Rates are also rising in Western Europe and the US. Nearly 1 million people in the United States are carrying HIV, and half of the new virus cases are black Americans. The sharpest increase in Asian countries is seen in China, Indonesia and Vietnam. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10 out of 9 people who need HIV retroviral treatment do not get treatment.

 

  • Transition from animals to humans
  • AIDS is a zoonotic infection. It is seen in humans and lower vertebrate animals. A virus that is genetically very similar to HIV has been found in chimpanzees living in areas close to the equator in West Africa. Called the monkey immunodeficiency virus (SIV), this virus has not yet caused the disease in chimpanzees. In the first half of the 20th century, HIV was thought to have been transmitted to humans during the hunting and chopping of the apes for meat. It is thought that the virus, which is seen in African green monkeys and a different kind of SIV, causes HIV-2. HIV-2 can also cause AIDS, but this process is much slower than HIV-1. Currently the most common human immunodeficiency virus in the world is HIV-1. HIV-2 is mainly seen in western Africa.

 

  • AIDS Symptoms
  • After HIV infection, the AIDS disease manifests itself within a few years, or even longer, depending on the living conditions and body resistance of the person. The HIV-infected body multiplies in various cells, especially CD4T blood cells. The damaged CD4T cells gradually decrease and as a result, the body’s immune system suffocates. In a patient with weak body resistance, some illnesses that are normally harmless, mild, or rare occur. They also grow in the lymph glands, recurrent herpes, wounds and stains in the mouth and bottom, long-term fever of unknown origin, night sweats, weight loss, diarrhea, cough. Tuberculosis, thrush, other bacteria, fungi and protozoan diseases arise opportunistic infections. AIDS may be considered if only a few of these indications are present together. Kaposi’s sarcoma and some lymphomas are also important symptoms of HIV infection. An anti-HIV (ELISA) test is performed for definitive diagnosis.

 

  • AIDS infection routeTransmission routes
  • HIV; Blood and blood products, sperm or other sexual fluids. It can also be transmitted to the baby through the placenta or milk. It does not get stuck with usual contacts such as coughing, sneezing or shaking hands. This virus is very fragile and can not survive in the air and water outside the body for a long time. For this reason, body fluids must be directly contacted for contamination. Scarring and tissue impairments caused by sexual disorders such as syphilis, genital herpes (herpes, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) increase the risk of HIV transmission.

 

  • Sexual intercourse
  • Viral infections can occur during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. However, HIV is not transmitted by kissing because the amount of HIV in saliva is very low. Only a ‘one‘ of the millions of AIDS cases registered in the world is a kissing method. However, in this case both sides were suffering from severe gum bleeding and it was seen that the cause of the contamination was not saliva but blood. In addition, the risk of transmission of HIV during unprotected anal intercourse is higher in unprotected vaginal involvement.

 

 

 

 

 

  • The use of the right condom prevents HIV transmission by 80%. HIV can be transmitted from both a man and a woman. Any sexually transmitted disease further increases the chance of HIV transmission. There are two types of HIV. In Type II, the likelihood of infection with man is higher in Type I than in men. In Africa, type 2 is more common, and in Europe and America it is more common.

 

  • The use of blood transfusion and common syringe

 

  • The spread of HIV among drug addicts from wombs sharing common syringes is quite high. Prior to the development of methods of detecting and killing HIV, the virus was also transmitted by blood transfusion, and in the past many hemophiliacs have been infected with the virus. Today, the risk of transmission of HIV through blood transfusions is very low. Very rarely, it seems that medical personnel have also caught this virus after the infected needles have accidentally sunk.

 

  • Breast milk and placenta
  • HIV, placenta or milk from the mother carrying the virus to the baby. Nowadays, babies can reduce the risk of catching viruses by 0.5% with antiretroviral drug treatment applied to mother and baby in the near term.

 

  • HIV / AIDS is not transmitted by:
  • HIV / AIDS is not transmitted by everyday contacts, by being in the same room, reading at the same school, breathing the same air. HIV is not healthy. Apart from this, HIV / AIDS is ‘infectious‘ in the following ways:
  • Handshaking, touching, touching, embracing, social kissing,
  • Saliva, tear, sweat, sneeze, cough, urine, stool,
  • Foods, drinks, cutlery, spoons, glasses, plates, telephones, etc.
  • Toilet, shower, faucet, swimming pool, sea, sauna, hammam etc.
  • The introduction of mosquitoes and other insects,
  • Live with cats, dogs and other animals in the same environment as an HIV-positive person

 

  • Children and HIV / AIDS
  • About 30% of mothers who are HIV-treated and not treated give the virus to their babies. If the mother is newly infected, or if the AIDS is in advanced stages, the virus is more likely to pass to the baby. The transition from mother to baby takes place in three ways:
  • Pregnancy – Blood and placenta confused by the way.
  • During birth – Blood on the road.
  • During breastfeeding – If you have the mother’s virus, there is low density of HIV in the milk, and the baby can become infected with milk.
  • Approximately 2.5 million children worldwide carry HIV. As of 2010, approximately 25 million children will be orphans due to AIDS.

 

  • Protection methods from aids
  • Unprotected sexual intercourse should not be entered. Care must be taken to ensure that the condom is intact, and petroleum-based lubricants such as vaseline should not be used as it may damage the preservative. Male and female condoms or two male condoms should not be used together. This behavior may cause the condom to tear because it will increase friction.
  • During blood transfusion, uncontrolled blood that has not been tested for AIDS should never be used.
  • Used and non-disinfected syringes, needles, surgical instruments, razors, scissors, dental instruments, acupuncture needles should never be used. Disposable devices must not be reused, and the used devices must be disinfected or sterilized.
  • An HIV-positive person should never donate blood after learning the test result.
  • Sperm fluid containing HIV, genital fluid or blood should be prevented from touching a wounded tissue.
  • Open wounds should be covered with tape to prevent entry of the virus into the body.

 

  • Treatment
  • For now, it is not a definite drug, but scientifically, the only protein complex that can bind to the Hiv virus allows cells containing the Gp41 hiv virus to be detected and destroyed by the defense mechanism

 

  • Aids Support centers
  • HIV / AIDS programs around the world are covered in prevention, treatment, care and support. HIV / AIDS has become a disease that requires regular treatment due to the developments in treatment in recent years, making it possible for people living with HIV to live a healthy life. However, social prejudices regarding HIV / AIDS make HIV diagnosis and treatment difficult. In this context, it is vitally important for people living with HIV to accept the diagnosis, to avoid psychological problems, to accept the treatment and to maintain it in a harmonious manner, and to support the transition to “living with HIV” in short.
AIDS
Author: wik Date: 4:44 pm
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